Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)
ISSN 1671-5888
CN 22-1343/P
主 任:蒋 函
编 辑:邱殿明 王晓丽
    刘 莉
电 话:0431-88502374
地 址:长春市西民主大街938号

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Formation and Evolution of Black Soil
Zhang Xinrong, Jiao Jieyu
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 553-568.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190262
Abstract241)      PDF(pc) (11279KB)(208)       Save
Black soil in middle and high latitudes is an important "stabilizer" for global agricultural production due to its high fertility and other good properties. The study of the formation and evolution of black soil in the world has flourished since the 19th century. However, the definition, characteristics, classification and research degree of black soil in different areas are different, which restricts the research of the influencing factors of black soil productivity and hinders the sustainable utilization of black soil resources to a certain extent. In this paper, the global black soil researches were systematically sorted out, the definition, characteristics, classification, and formation and evolution of black soil were analyzed, and the scientific research methods and development trend of black soil formation and evolution were discussed. Broad sense black soil includes mainly black soil and chernozem, meadow soil, albic soil, dark brown soil, and brown soil, etc. Its formation is mainly controlled by five natural factors:climate, topography, vegetation, soil parent material, and hydrology. The factors make the black soil different in nature and forming types, and the soil properties show certain different characteristics. The experiments such as spherical chemical analysis, sporopollen analysis, and particle size analysis are used to simulate the formation environment of black soil. Advanced scientific methods, such as model construction, spectral analysis, geographic information technology, image interpretation, and dynamic monitoring are used to predict the degradation of black soil, and the results provide a solid theoretical basis for the protection of black land.
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Oil Shale Characteristics and Distribution in Typical Basins of China
Liu Zhaojun, Liu Rong, Sun Pingchang, Meng Qingtao, Hu Fei
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 313-325.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200017
Abstract191)      PDF(pc) (29668KB)(137)       Save
The characteristics of oil shale deposits in continental basins in China are wildly distributed. Taking Songliao basin,Fushun and Huadian Basin in the Dunmi fault zone,Junggar basin, and Ordos basin as examples,the authors analyzed four types of basins:discrete continental rift basin,transitional strike slip basin,convergent foreland basin, and intraplate craton basin,and summarized oil shale characteristics and their distribution. Among them,the oil shale of discrete continental rift basin deposited in the post rift thermal subsidence evolution stage has the characteristics of organic matter type Ⅰ,medium oil yield,stable thickness, and wide distribution area,which is easy to form super large oil shale deposits, while the oil shale of discrete continental rift basin deposited in the same rift has the characteristics of organic matter type Ⅱ1-Ⅱ2, medium oil yield, medium thickness, and small distribution area, which is easy to form medium oil shale deposits; the oil shale in the conversion strike slip basin has the characteristics of Ⅱ1-Ⅱ2 organic matter and medium-small overall distribution range, but the occurrence of deposits is quite different depending on the extent of the structural subsidence of the strike slip movement fault depression, which tends to form not only oil shale deposits with medium oil yield and huge thickness, but also oil shale deposits with high oil yield and thin thickness; the oil shale deposited in the continental molasse stage of convergent foreland basin has the characteristics of Ⅰ-Ⅱ1 types of organic matter, high oil yield, large thickness, but limited distribution and large changes in stratigraphic occurrence, which is easy to form large oil shale deposits; the oil shale deposited in the stage of intracontinental depression of craton basin has the characteristics of Ⅰ-Ⅱ1 types of organic matter, medium oil yield, stable thickness, and wide distribution area, which is easy to form super large oil shale deposits. Among all types of basins,deep lake environment, high system tract, and transgressive system tract are favorable for oil shale formation.
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Characteristics and Geological Significance of Palynological Fossils from Bayingebi Formation of Lower Cretaceous in Yin’e Basin
Liu Rong, Yan Xu, Liu Zhaojun, Zhang Kun, Wu Xinpu, Zhao Kang'an
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 341-355.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190273
Abstract189)      PDF(pc) (18354KB)(236)       Save
The study of Cretaceous continental paleoclimate has become an important reference for the international study of the earth environment system. The systematic sampling of the Lower Cretaceous Bayingebi Formation in Yin'e basin was made. Through the observation of lithology and analysis of sporopollen, the paleoclimate evolution and organic enrichment conditions were systematically studied. A total of 173 species belonging to 58 genera were identified, including 141 species belonging to 37 genera of gymnosperms, 11 species belonging to 6 genera of angiosperms, and 21 species belonging to 15 genera of ferns. Gymnosperms are dominant in the pollen assemblages with the pollen content over 90%. Coniferous forest is the main vegetation type, followed by coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, reflecting the north subtropical climate in warm temperate zone. The overall climate is semi-humid and humid with semi-arid in some layers. Semi-humid climate is the most favorable climate for the enrichment of organic matter in the study area, followed by humid climate.
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Petrological Characteristics and Sedimentary Environment of Qixia Formation in Guang’an Area, Sichuan Basin
Yi Haiyong, Cui Baochen, Wang Yaolin, Qiu Yuchao, Xu Shenglin, Li Qian
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 454-464.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190266
Abstract179)      PDF(pc) (37994KB)(53)       Save
A series of petroleum exploration discoveries have been made in Qixia Formation of Middle Permian in Sichuan basin, which has great resource potential. However, the previous research on the petrological characteristics and sedimentary environment of Middle Permian Qixia Formation in Guang'an area is weak. On the basis of geological survey, combined with petrology and petrography, the authors studied the carbonate rock characteristics, sedimentary facies types,and paleo-geographical distribution characteristics of Qixia Formation. The result shows that there are seven rock types developed in Qixia Formation in Guang'an area, including sparry bioclastic limestone, sparry granular limestone, microcrystalline bioclastic limestone, microcrystalline granular limestone, biofragmentary microcrystalline limestone, biofragmentary microcrystalline limestone containing biofragmentary microcrystalline limestone, and micritic limestone. The carbonate grains are mainly bioclastic, and spherules in some layers. Paleontological fossils are mainly trilobites, brachiopods, foraminifera, as well as echinoderms and algae. In the deposition period of Qixia Formation, the depositional environment was mainly a carbonate platform; in the later stage of Qixia Formation (Member 2), the marginal-platform shoals and intra-platform shoals were well developed, which provides favorable conditions for hydrocarbon accumulation in this area.
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Production Profile Test Technology and Application of Coalbed Methane
Zhang Lei, Fan Hongbo, Hou Wei, Zhang Wei, Hao Shuai, Sun Xiaoguang
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 617-626.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190270
Abstract178)      PDF(pc) (4892KB)(36)       Save
At present, the existing conventional oil and gas well production profile testing methods have limitations such as testing range and measuring technology,low construction success rate,and poor adaptability in coalbed methane wells. In order to make an improvement, a systematic design and development of coal-bed gas well production profile testing technology were carried out. Through the compact structure design and high integration, a set of coalbed methane logging instrument has been developed, which can simultaneously measure the temperature, pressure, magnetic positioning, thermal flow, probe gas, microwave gas, turbine flow, ultrasonic flow,and other multiple parameters. A multi-purpose one-time testing technology for single well coal bed methane production logging profile has been developed. A multi task and multi window portable ground system operation has been developed, and a new type of eccentric testing wellhead has also been developed and applied to coalbed methane well to realize continuous testing during workover. The technology was tested in three coalbed methane wells in north Shilou block, Ordos basin, the test data obtained are accurate and continuous,and the anti-interference ability are improved. The test results show that the 8#+9# coal seam in north Shilou block is the main gas and water producing layer.
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Petrological and Geochemical Evidence of Anatexis Collapse in Continental Orogenic Belt: Taking Anatectite of North Dabie Terrain as an Example
Wang Deyuan, Xu Haijin, Wang Pan, Jia Min, Gao Zhandong
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (3): 675-693.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20180227
Abstract170)      PDF(pc) (44256KB)(99)       Save
North Dabie terrain (NDT) is located in the core of Dabie orogenic belt, where a large number of migmatites were formed during the collapse of orogen. It is of great significance to understand the formation and evolution of Dabie orogenic belt. The protolith of NDT migmatites are TTG (D) rocks generated from the anatexis induced by dehydration and melting of biotite and amphibolite. The plagioclase-rich leucosome produced in the bedding with Pl+Qtz+Bi±Kfs±Hbl is its major mineral composition. The pegmatite veins or block masses are rich in K-feldspar-rich leucosome with Kfs+Qtz±Pl±Bi±Hbl as its major mineral composition. The melanosome is a crystalloblastic structure with Hbl+Bi+Pl+Qtz±Cpx as its major mineral composition. The amphibolite and biotite in melanosome usually have directional alignment and distinct melting corrosion structures. The main leucocratic minerals in the melanosome are plagioclase and quartzes, indicating the residual products of partial melting. The whole-rock geochemistry shows that alkali metal elements Na, K, large ion lithophile elements Ba, K, La, and LREE etc. have the priority of entering into the acid melt; however, the compatible elements and middle-high rare earth elements remain in the restite minerals. The leucosomes have the same right deviation REE patterns as that of the granitoids, rich in LREE and loss of HREE, but have a large positive Eu anomaly with the ratios of δEu ranging from 2.48 to 6.55; while the granite is on the contrary, the content of the frame structure composed of the large-grain plagioclases is apparently higher than the normal granite melt, which indicates that the leucosomes are more likely the product of the early crystallization of the melts.
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Oil Shale Features and Sedimentary Environment in Jianchang Basin, Western Liaoning Province
Wang Simin, Zang Dongsheng, Wang Xiqiong, Li Jie, Han Song, Li Jianzhong
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 326-340.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190312
Abstract170)      PDF(pc) (15808KB)(275)       Save
Jianchang basin, located in western Liaoning Province, is rich in oil shale resources. Based on the data of outcrops, drilling and laboratory analyses, distribution and petrological characteristics, the geochemical characteristics and sedimentary environment of oil shale were analyzed. The study shows that the oil shale is in the first, second and third members of Jiufotang Formation, totally nine ore groups. The average oil content and thickness of the third member of Jiufotang Formation are better than those of others. The average oil content of the oil shale is 5.15%, the average ash content is 81.9%, the total sulfur content is low, and the average calorific value is 5.19 kJ/g, belonging to medium-high calorific oil shale. The technically identified recoverable resources of oil shale and shale oil are 8.22×108 t and 3.17×107 t respectively in the area of Jianchang, Wujiazi, Jiufotang, Qidaoquanzi, and Daqingshan. It is predicted that there is 9.27×1010 t oil shale resources in Jianchang basin. There are abundant organic matter in immature-low mature stage, mainly type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ1. During Jiufotang Formation, the climate was warm and humid, a large quantity of organic matter from land and lakes were deposited, and the sedimentary environment was in the state of freshwater and brackish reduction, which was conducive to the preservation of organic matter.
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Fine Portray of Thin Sand-Bodies and Trajectory Design of Horizontal Well in Zhaoyuan Area
Chen Shoutian, Wu Yujin, Fu Xichun, Zhang Wenlong, An Zhaohui, Cong Peihong
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 598-607.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200012
Abstract161)      PDF(pc) (26374KB)(68)       Save
The sand-bodies of Fuyu reservoir in Songliao basin are thin in thickness, unstable in distribution, and great in lateral variation. To accurately identify and characterize the spatial distribution of single-layer sand-bodies and rationally and effectively design the drilling trajectory of horizontal wells are the keys to ensure the effective development of horizontal wells. By using pre-stack phased inversion,multiple inversion,and constrained sliding thresholds by encrypted isochronous frames,the thin sand-bodies are finely characterized. In consideration with the characteristics of the sand body of Fuyu oil layer in this area, combined with the structural fractures and the distribution of thin sand-bodies,the authors design the horizontal well trajectories through the reference wells to determine the encountered sand-bodies and their petroleum-bearing property, and the sandstone encounter rate of horizontal wells is 99.5%.
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Salt Lake Depositional Characteristics of Upper Member of Lower Ganchaigou Formation, Western Qaidam Basin
Wang Jiangong, Zhang Daowei, Shi Yajun, Zhang Ping, Sun XiuJian, Wang Aiping, Wang Yulin, Gao Yanfang, Zhang Shiming, Yi Dinghong
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 442-453.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190268
Abstract155)      PDF(pc) (30484KB)(58)       Save
Based on abundant geological and geochemical data, the salt lake sedimentary characteristics of the Lower Ganchaigou Formation of Oligocene were studied to identify the major rock types and discuss the controlling factors of complex lithofacies, so as to restore the paleo-sedimentary environment and establish the sedimentary models. Salt lake can be divided into two types of sedimentary environments including basin margin and intra-basin, and five types of sedimentary facies zones are developed. The beach slope facies zone, steep slope facies zone and gentle slope facies zone are developed in the basin margin sedimentary environment, and the underwater high facies zone and the profound water facies zone are developed in the intra-basin sedimentary environment. There are three evolutionary stages from the bottom to the top of the upper section of the Lower Ganchaigou Formation:semi-salt lake, salt water lake, and salt lake, corresponding to three lithological associations of carbonate rocks and calcareous sandstone, anhydrite-rich carbonate rocks and mudstones, and thick-bedded salts and thin-bedded carbonates. The distribution of sedimentary lithofacies is controlled by the differences of chemical, biological and physical sedimentation, and the main controlling factors of sedimentation are climate, paleo-geomorphology,and tectonic movement.
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Geochemistry and Zircon U-Pb Ages of Clastic Rocks of Zhesi Formation in Suolun Region, Great Xing’an Range: Constraints on Origins of Sediment Provenance
He Zhonghua, Wang Qizhi, Wang Qiang
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 405-424.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190324
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This paper focused on the clastic rocks of the Middle Permian Zhesi Formation, well exposed in the Haoren Town, Suolun region of Inner Mongolia. Geochemistry and zircon geochronology analyses were conducted, in order to constrain the ages and origins of sediment provenance. The dating results show that the U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from the Zhesi Formation sandstone can be divided into six groups, i.e., 282-244 Ma, 352-294 Ma, 468-379 Ma, 513-482 Ma, 802-580 Ma, and 2 500-1 800 Ma, respectively. Geochemically, the sandstone samples have high SiO2, and low Fe2O3, FeO, and MgO contents, indicating they were mainly deposited from felsic rocks. Rare earth elements and trace elements characteristics and tectonic distinguished diagrams suggest the sediment source region of the Middle Permian Zhesi Formation dominantly displays similar features with those of continental arc and active continental margin, with minor corresponding to passive continental margin. The former setting is the results of the amalgamation-collision of the Jiamusi-Mongolia block and northwards subduction of the south branch of the Paleo-Asian Ocean during different stages, while the later one probably reflects the tectonic setting of the generation of some basement rocks. Considering the facts that:1) the study region is located in the southeastern Xing'an block, far away form the North China craton; 2) the Zhesi Formation clastic rocks mainly consist of feldspar lithic sandstone, lithic feldspar sandstone, and lithic sandstone with relatively low structure and ingredient maturity, suggesting characteristics of near-source deposition; and 3) the coeval igneous rocks in the surrounding regions were all formed in subduction-related settings, it is proposed here that the Zhesi Formation was most likely deposited in a back-arc or inter-arc basin related with the northwards subduction of the south branch of the Paleo-Asian Ocean beneath the Jiamusi-Mongolia block, and their provenance was dominantly from the subduction-related igneous rocks in the southern margin of the Jiamusi-Mongolia block, with little contributions from ancient basement of the Jiamusi-Mongolia block.
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Characteristics of Magnetic Susceptibility, Grain Size and Chromaticity of Modern Sediments in the Southern Margin of Songnen Plain and Their Paleoclimate Environment Significance
Zhang Xinrong, Ping Shuaifei, Jiao Jieyu, Liu Enhao
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 465-479.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190250
Abstract155)      PDF(pc) (11964KB)(203)       Save
A better understanding of the Quaternary paleoclimate process in Songnen plain is of great theoretical significance for the study of the climate-influencing factors on the black soil degradation in this area. Seven sediments sections were collected from Guojia (GJ), Wangou (WG), Pingantun (PA), Yaofenshuiling (YP), Xidi (XD), Hujiadian (H),and Xiaojia (XJ) in the Changchun-Siping segment of Daheishan horst, the south margin of Songnen plain. The magnetic susceptibility, grain size,and chromaticity analyses indicate that the magnetic susceptibility of sediments is mostly characterized by increasing during drying or cold period,and decreasing during wet or warmer period. The color has a great influence on the magnetic susceptibility. The magnetic susceptibility of reddish brown sand or sandy clay is higher than that of light yellow or grayish green sand or sandy clay; while the magnetic susceptibility of light yellow or grayish green sand or sandy clay is higher than that of grayish black sand or sandy clay. The presence of carbonate or limestone in the source area makes the relationship between sediment chromaticity and magnetic susceptibility relatively complex. On the studied profiles, the magnetic susceptibility increases with the increase of grain size. Freeze-thaw or rainy can increase the grain size, and cause high magnetic susceptibility, however, in a warmer period, the magnetic susceptibility is reduced by the decrease of source supply. The three indicators comprehensively reflect that the seven sections experienced a paleoclimate environment process of a cold and dry in Early Pleistocene, cold and wet-warm and wet-cold and dry in Middle Pleistocene, and cool and wet in Late Pleistocene.
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Provenance and Tectonic Setting of the Paleoproterozoic Metasedimentary Rocks from the Liaohe Group in Gongchangling-Xiuyan Area, East Liaoning Province
Wang Chengzhi, Dong Yongsheng, Wang Pengsen, Chen Musen, Bai Xuerui
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 941-956.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190225
Abstract155)            Save
Gongchangling-Xiuyan area is located in the eastern part of the Jiao-Liao-Ji orogenic belt, where thick layers of the Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks are developed. We studied on these metamorphic sedimentary rocks in petrography and zircon U-Pb chronology. The petrographic characteristics show that the metamorphic degree of these rocks is low, overall greenschist facies metamorphism with no highly metamorphosed minerals formed. Quartz is the main mineral in the rocks, and carbonate minerals are common in the North Liaohe Group. The distinct oscillatory zoning and high Th/U ratios (>0.3) of detrital zircons in the Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rock suggest these zircons are of magmatic origin. Combining the data of U-Pb geochronology, we found that detrital zircons from the Li’eryu, Gaojiayu, Dashiqiao and Gaixian Formations yield age peaks at 2 159 Ma, 2 500 Ma, 2 189/2 530 Ma, and 2 044/2 197 Ma, respectively, indicating that their sediments are from the Liao-Ji Paleoproterozoic granitoids and the adjacent Archean complex. Combining the data of previous researches, We considered that the South and North Liaohe Groups formed in the same tectonic setting and underwent the same evolution process. Therefore, the Paleoproterozoic arc-continent collision model may be more applicable to interpret the evolution of the Jiao-Liao-Ji orogenic belt.
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Sedimentary Characteristics and Genesis of Carbonate Cements in Carboniferous Donghe Sandstone Member, Hanilcatam Area of Tarim Basin
Chen Xiuyan, Wang Jian, Zhang Liping, Ma Debo, Zhou Bo
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 509-517.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190269
Abstract154)      PDF(pc) (15048KB)(40)       Save
The Carboniferous Donghe sandstone in Tarim basin is a typical deep-buried marine clastic reservoir in China, which has good physical properties and strong heterogeneity influenced by carbonate cements. In order to predict the beneficial zones of high quality reservoir more accurately, the authors studied the sedimentary characteristics and genesis of the carbonate cements in Donghe sandstone through core observation, variety of thin section identification, carbon and oxygen isotope, and cathodoluminescence analyses. It indicates the sandstones on foreshore and upper shore face are rich in oil, while the oil-free sandstones contain four types of carbonate cement:Ⅰ-biological burrow type, Ⅱ-bedding-laminae type, Ⅲ-thin calcareous sandstone intercalated in thick sandstone type, and Ⅳ-calcareous sandstone globular type. The carbonate cements include more calcite and some ferro-calcite, which usually fill in the intergranular and intragranular dissolved pores. The genesis of carbonate cements in Donghe sandstone is more organic acid decarboxylation in type Ⅱ and type Ⅲ lithologic associations; and some of the type Ⅰ and type Ⅳ are biogenesis and outcrop sedimentology. The key reason of heavy δ13C in the study area is the erosion and solution of Ordovician carbonate rocks from the eastern Lunnan low salience.
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Organic Geochemical Characteristics and Depositional Environment of Oil Shale of Eocene of Paleocene Youganwo Formation in Yangjiao Mining Area of Maoming Basin
Meng Qingtao, Li Jinguo, Liu Zhaojun, Hu Fei, Xu Chuan
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 356-367.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190288
Abstract153)      PDF(pc) (7562KB)(107)       Save
In view of the forming mechanism of oil shale in Maoming basin, the authors studied the organic geochemical characteristics, and discussed the origin of organic matters and depositional environment of Eocene Youganwo Formation oil shale in Yangjiao mining area based on Leco, rock pyrolysis, oil yield, and biomarker analysis. The results show that the abundance of organic matter is high, the kerogen is type Ⅰ-Ⅱ1, the average oil yield is 5.98%, and the quality of oil shale is fairly high. ICP (3.73-4.37), OEP (7.59-9.57), low C29ααα20S/(20S+20R), low Ts/(Ts+Tm),and Tmax (428-434℃) indicate that the oil shale thermal evolution of Youganwo Formation is in immature stage. The gas chromatography (GC) of n-alkanes has the features of unimodal distributions with nC27 as the mean peak. ∑C21-/∑C22+ and ∑C21+22/∑C28+29 are low, ICP and OEP are high. The content of high-carbon hopanes is high,while the content of tricyclic terpenes is low. No non-hoprii compounds such as oleane and lupane are detected. Combined with the relative content of C27-C28-C29,all the above indicate that lacustrine algae, mixed sources of plankton and terrestrial plants are the main source of organic matter of the oil shale of Youganwo Formation. TOC/S (41.14-170.08), Pr/Ph (0.82-1.30), and rearranged sterane/sterane (0.06-1.10) indicate that the paleo-lake condition was fresh and reductive when oil shale deposited. In a subtropical-temperate warm-humid climate, high lake productivity is caused by aquatic organisms such as algae bloom, and reductive fresh water environment is favorable for oil shale mineralization in Youganwo Formation of Maoming basin.
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Prospecting Model and Quantitative Prediction of Pb-Zn Deposits in Western Hunan and Eastern Guizhou
Li Kun, Liu Fei, Liu Kai, Zhao Shaorui, Tang Zhaoyang, Duan Qifa
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (3): 825-841.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20180216
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The western Hunan and eastern Guizhou are located in the southeast margin of the Yangtze craton,where more than 200 Pb-Zn deposits/occurrences are developed. It is one of the important successive strategic bases of Pb-Zn resources in China. In this district, a systematic study is conducted on ore controlling factors and prospecting indicators of Pb-Zn deposits. The Pb-Zn deposits are jointly controlled by stratum, lithofacies, and structures, specifically the lithology assemblages, middle shallow ramp facies, regional faults, anticline, secondary faults,and fractures. The important prospecting indicators of Pb-Zn deposits in this district mainly include oxidation outcrop containing limonite or smithsonite, hydrothermal alterations of calcilization, pyritization, baratization,and bituminization, Pb, Zn, Cd, CaO, Hg geochemical anomalies, and Pb-Zn-Cd combination geochemical anomaly. On the basis of the comprehensive analyses of controlling factors and prospecting indicators, the authors build a geological-geochemical regional prospecting model, which is helpful to conduct comprehensive quantitative prediction by using characteristic analysis method on the GIS platform. According to the prospecting probability contour map of Pb-Zn deposits, two first-class ore prospective areas and two second-class ore prospective areas are delineated. The authors suggest that Songtao, Zhenyuan-Tongren and Duyun-Kaili are the most potential areas for further exploration.
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Geological Significance of Sedimentary Environment Characteristics and Time Limit of Linxi Formation in Arhorchin Banner, Southern Great Xing’an Range
Dong Qingshui, He Chunsheng, Lou Renxing, Ren Xigang, Zhang Chao, Zhang Yujin, Xu Shengchuan
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 425-441.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190292
Abstract148)      PDF(pc) (19467KB)(190)       Save
Aiming at the controversial issues such as the sedimentary environment, time-limit of Linxi Formation, and the final closing time of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in Xingmeng-Songnen area,a comprehensive analysis was conducted for the lithology and paleontology of Linxi Formation in Hanmiao area of Arhorchin Banner, in particular,the trace elements, and the U-Pb dating of detrital zircon. The ratio of trace elements Sr/Ba is mainly distributed between 0.05 and 0.18 (average 0.12), the ratio of B/Ga is mainly distributed between 1.84 and 3.22 (average 2.50), and the V/Cr value is between 1.36 and 2.21 (average 1.81), which indicate that the sedimentary period of Linxi Formation was an anoxic freshwater lake environment. The freshwater bivalves and leaf-lime fossils are developed in Linxi Formation. The sandstone clastic zircons of Linxi Formation have multi-epoch provenance. The youngest age is 251 Ma, reflecting the lower sedimentary age in Late Permian. Based on the above characteristics, it can be inferred that the final closing time of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in the study area is the end of the Middle Permian, and the study area transformed into continental sediments during the Late Permian.
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Discovery and Geological Significance of Eocene Pinghu Formation Tempestites in Tiantai Area,Xihu Sag,East China Sea Basin
He Yuping
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 500-508.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190298
Abstract148)      PDF(pc) (15590KB)(63)       Save
The tempestites are developed in Eocene Pinghu Formation in Tiantai area in Xihu sag,and the discovery of tempestites has great paleo-graphical and paleo-environmental significances. According to core observation, the storm-generated sedimentary structures are identified, including scouring-filling structure, storm tearing structure, and hummocky cross-stratifications, etc. Through analyzing the lithofacies and sedimentary structures, two types of tempestites, near source and far source, are distinguished. The near source tempestites show incomplete storm sedimentary sequence units, and are dominated by storm-generated grave layers(A)+mud beds(E), indicating sedimentary environment of subtidal zone of tidal flat; while the far source tempestites show incomplete or complete storm sedimentary sequence units, and are dominated by graded members (B)+parallel laminations (C)+hummocky cross-stratifications(D), indicating shallow near storm wave base environment. The sequential depositional evolution of tempestites is from shallow sea shelf to tidal flat upwardly. The discovery of tempesites in the study area provides an important basis for the research of the evolution of paleo-environment.
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Geochemical Characteristics and Paleolimnological Information of Oil Shale in 1st Member of Qingshankou Formation in Northern Songliao Basin
Zheng Guodong, Meng Qingtao, Liu Zhaojun
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 392-404.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190265
Abstract148)      PDF(pc) (15491KB)(56)       Save
The geochemical characteristics and paleolimnological information of oil shale are the key evidence to reveal the rule of metallogeny and enrichment of oil shale. Based on the analyses of TOC, oil yield, rock pyrolysis, element, biomarker compound,and organic maceral, geochemical characteristics of oil shale in the 1st Member of Qingshankou Formation in Well ZY1 in northern Songliao basin the were refinedly characterized, paleolimnological information recorded by the oil shale was analyzed, then the control effect of paleolake on organic matter enrichment of oil shale was discussed. The results show that there are 8 layers of medium-high quality oil shale in the 1st Member of Qingshankou Formation, and the high quality oil shale is mainly in the lower part. The TOC of oil shale has good correlation with the oil yield. Seen from the thermal evolution, the oil shale is in the immature-low mature stage with high hydrocarbon potential. Abundant steranes and terpanes are detected from the oil shale samples. The organic matter type of oil shale is mainly Ⅰ, and the main source of organic matter is lake aquatic organisms dominated by lamalginite. The paleolacustrine productivity of the lower part can be divided into three cycles by geochemical parameters, correspondingly the water salinity of paleolake shows three cycles from semi-saline to saline, and the redox property of paleo-lake shows reduction-strong reduction-reduction. And the paleolacustrine productivity of the late cycle Ⅱ is the highest, corresponding to the highest water salinity and the strongest reducibility. It is suggested that the high lake yield caused by lake eutrophication is the material basis of organic matter enrichment of high-quality oil shale in the 1st Member of Qingshankou Formation, and the strong reduction environment of bottom water controlled by salinity stratification is favorable for the accumulation of organic matter in high-quality oil shale.
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Controlling Factors of Oil Shale and Coal Oil Yield in Lower Cretaceous Muling Formation in Laoheishan Basin
Song Yu, Liu Zhaojun, Achim Bechtel, Xu Yinbo, Meng Qingtao, Sun Pingchang, Zhu Kai
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 378-391.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190247
Abstract147)      PDF(pc) (18218KB)(155)       Save
The paragenetic oil shale and coal are widely developed in continental basins of China. The authors took the oil shale and coal of the lower Cretaceous Muling Formation in Laoheishan basin as a study object, and studied the controlling factors of oil yield of oil shale and coal, combined with both industrial parameters (oil yield, ash content, volatile matter, total sulfur, and gross calorific value) and organic geochemical analyses (total organic carbon, Rock-Eval, maceral, and biomarker analyses). The oil shale and coal are classified into four types, including high oil yield oil shale (HOS), low oil yield oil shale (LOS), high oil yield coal (HC), and low oil yield coal (LC). The highest TOC and S1+S2 values are observed in HC, followed by LC, HOS, and LOS, all types are of type Ⅱ kerogen and in immature stage. The source of organic matter and depositional environment are the key controlling factors of oil yield in oil shale and coal. HC was deposited in mire with abundant input of terrestrial organic matter; in contrast, HOS was formed in limnology environment with moderate input of terrestrial organic matter. The floral assemblage is characterized by the presence of Pinaceae, Cupressaceae/Taxodiaceae, Araucariaceae, Podocarpaceae and ferns during the formation of oil shale and coal. These plants could provide abundant resinous and waxy organic matter, which lead to relatively high oil yield of oil shale and coal.
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Characteristics of Volcanic Reservoirs in Southern Songliao Basin
Miao Changsheng, Xu Wen, Liu Yuhu, Xie Rongxiang
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 635-643.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190253
Abstract146)      PDF(pc) (22583KB)(47)       Save
The volcanic rocks are widely distributed in the fault depression of the southern Songliao basin. After the recent breakthrough in the exploration of the middle-basic volcanic rocks in the south of Changling, the research on the characteristics of volcanic gas reservoirs has become the hot topic again. The volcanic reservoirs are characterized by vertical multi-periods and horizontal multi-phase zones with strong heterogeneity. Based on the data of several years exploration in the southern Songliao basin, many proxies have been applied to describe the characteristics of volcanic reservoirs from macroscopic to microscopic scales, such as core description, casting thin sections, and scanning electron microscope and CT scanning. Twelve kinds of effective volcanic reservoir types are recognized, and they are categorized into three groups. Among them,the widely development of two integrated reservoir types, "porosity + dissolution" and "pore + seam network", is the key point for the development of effective reservoirs in volcanic rocks. The controls of volcanic structure-lithofacies type, tectonic settings, exposure duration, and effects distance to hydrocarbon-generating source on the development of effective reservoirs in volcanic rocks are preliminarily summarized.
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Definition and Reestablishment on Conception System About Comparative Sedimentology
Fang Shi, Zhao Yun
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 480-499.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190365
Abstract142)      PDF(pc) (3999KB)(60)       Save
Many aspects of Sedimentology are promoted by Comparative Sedimentology in recent eras, which shows the great significance of Comparative Sedimentology to the development of Sedimentology. At present, it is widely used in the inference of the facies models, the prediction of sedimentary facies belts,and the prediction of reservoirs & their heterogeneity. Comparative Sedimentology is a branch of Sedimentology, which uses the selected variables of the compared object to build its spatio-temporal model, and further to predict the distribution of the dependent variables. Two steps should be included in a complete Comparative Sedimentology process:comparative modeling and inferential prediction; in other words, according to the analogy principle of comparative sedimentology, probability reasoning is carried out on the basis of identifying natural cycles and induced cycles. Its research methods include the local facies pattern analysis, the geometric morphology analysis, the sediment loading dispersion system analysis,and the simulation reconstruction, which are normally combined with sequence stratigraphy. The typical research results in recent decades have been comprehensively analyzed on the basis of the principles and methods of Comparative Sedimentology. It can be predicted that the further research of Comparative Sedimentology will concentrates on boundary conditions, multi-scale unification, and quantification to improve prediction accuracy.
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Control Factors of High Quality Reservoir in Upper Part of the 3rd Member of Eocene Shahejie Formation in Kenli L Oilfield, Bohai Bay Basin
Zhao Hanqing, Chen Xiaoming, Li Chao, Wu Qiongyuan, Wang Di
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 653-661.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190264
Abstract140)      PDF(pc) (12007KB)(83)       Save
The physical characteristics and genesis of the upper part of the 3rd member of Eocene Shahejie Formation (E2s3u) in Kenli L oilfield of Laizhou Bay sag in Bohai Bay basin were clarified by using a variety of analyses and testing methods, such as casting thin sections, SEM, X diffraction, pore permeability test and drilling test, combined with the related research results of regional tectonic setting and sedimentary system, the physical properties control factors of E2s3u were discussed, and applied in oilfield water injection development. The results show that:the reservoir of E2s3u with the average porosity of 28.9% and the average permeability of 762.7×10-3μm2 belongs to "high porosity-permeability" reservoir,the reservoir space is mainly primary intergranular pores with secondary intergranular pores, mold holes, and micro-fractures; the average width of the micro-fractures is 180 μm, the existence of the micro-fractures provided a highly efficient seepage channels, which makes drilling test pore permeability is obviously better than that through core test. The physical properties of high quality reservoirs are mainly affected by system tract, fault activity and burial, the thick net sandstone under transgressive system tract is the material basis of forming high-quality reservoirs; the developed micro-fractures improved seepage capacity; rapid burial slowed the drainage of reservoir pore water and the decline of reservoir physical properties. Based on high-quality reservoir development characteristics and production dynamic data, optimizing layered allocation of water wells, reducing uneven water flooding in the horizontal and vertical directions, and then Kenli L oilfield achieved balanced displacement.
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Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 0-0.  
Abstract135)      PDF(pc) (267KB)(64)       Save
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Mineral Compositional and Chronological Characteristics of Guposhan Pluton in Guangxi and Its Petrogenetic and Metallogenic Significance
Cai Yongfeng, Liu Fenglei, Feng Zuohai, Zhou Yun, Zeng Changyu
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (3): 842-856.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20180316
Abstract131)      PDF(pc) (13959KB)(39)       Save
In order to reveal the distribution of Early Yanshanian magmatism and its petrogenetic and metallogenic significance in South China,the authors studied the mineral composition and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb geochronological characteristics of Guposhan pluton, which intruded in Huashan-Guposhan belt in northeast Guangxi. The geochronological analyses show two crystallized ages of (162±3) and (163±2) Ma, which are consistent with the time of Mesozoic large scale magmatism and mineralization in South China. The result of electron microprobe analyzer (EMPA) suggests that the biotite from Guposhan pluton has high TFeO and low MgO contents with Fe/(Fe+Mg) values of 0.68-0.84, resembling those of siderophyllite. The negative correlation between TFeO and MgO shows that the replacement between Fe2+ and Mg2+ occurred during crystallization of biotite. The data of biotite thermometers show high crystallization temperature of 680-705℃ and low oxygen fugacity of -17.0--15.5. The results of Al-in-biotite barometer indicate the biotite crystallization pressure is 69-179 MPa, suggesting a crystallization depth of 2 621-6 755 m. Integrated with regional geological data, it could be inferred that the Early Yanshanian (~162 Ma) granitic magmatism is a common geological process, and a large scale of lithospheric extension and thinning might be the key mechanism to drive the Mesozoic magmatism and the corresponding mineralization in South China. Relatively high temperature, low oxygen fugacity, and shallow environment are favorable for Sn mineralization.
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Geochemical Characteristics and Source Analysis of Carboniferous-Permian Condensate Oil and Gas in Huanghua Depression
Xu Jinjun, Li Ning, Jin Qiang, Liu Jihua, Lou Da, Teng Jiancheng
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 644-652.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190267
Abstract130)      PDF(pc) (3667KB)(57)       Save
Deep oil and gas exploration is an important replacement area for oil and gas resources in the future. Since the oil and gas exploration of the Lower Carboniferous-Permian coal-series source rocks in Bohai Bay basin has made new breakthroughs, it has become a research hotspot in the deep oil and gas field. The high-yield condensate gas flow has been obtained in the newly deployed Well QG8 and Well YG1 in the Dagang exploration area, and the source identification is the key to deep oil and gas exploration. The analysis result indicates that the condensate from well QG8 and Well YG1 is light oil with low viscosity and density. The condensate has high pristane (Pr/Ph>2.8),and the stable carbon isotope (δ13C) of n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons of Well QG8 condensate is -29.1‰ and -26.8‰ respectively. The δ13C1 of natural gas is heavier, ranging from -39.7‰ to -36.4‰ with drying coefficient more than 0.8,and the heavy hydrocarbon content is higher, up to 16.2%,belonging to wet gas prone to dry. It is found that the characteristics of condensate oil and gas of Well QG8 and Well YG1 are similar in stable carbon isotopes in extracts (saturated hydrocarbons δ13C=-29.26‰—-26.87‰, aromatic hydrocarbons δ13C=-26.62‰—-24.15‰, natural gas δ13C1=-43‰—-35‰,and crude oil physical properties of density is 0.757 1-0.840 2 g/cm3), indicating that the condensate oil and gas come from the Carboniferous-Permian coaly source rocks. It is confirmed that the Carboniferous-Permian coaly source rocks in Bohai Bay basin have hydrocarbon generation potential and oil-gas exploration prospect.
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Research Status, Geological Significance and Development Trend of Solid Bitumen in Reservoirs
Li Yong, Chen Shijia, Yin Xiangdong, He Qingbo, Su Kaiming, Xiao Zhenglu, Qiu Wen, He Xin
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (3): 732-746.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190013
Abstract125)      PDF(pc) (6422KB)(141)       Save
The research of solid bitumen can provide the information about hydrocarbon formation and evolution,which can guide for hydrocarbon exploration and development. Based on the analyses at home and abroad, the definition, origin and classification of solid bitumen, influence of solid bitumen on reservoir properties,and identification of solid bitumen logging are comprehensively expounded. There are various genetic types of solid asphalt, which can be divided into two categories:thermal and cold metamorphism. Solid bitumen reflectance can be used as an index to judge maturity, but transformation relationship should be determined based on the actual geological situation. Solid bitumen can fill up reservoir pores, and pore throats can be blocked. This can result in reservoirs destructed and uneven distributed, however, solid bitumen can be favorable sealing belts for preservation and formation of subtle reservoirs. Solid bitumen has special response characters in nuclear magnetic resonance, and can be identified by NMR T1/T2 index, neutron-density cross plot, difference between density porosity and gas porosity, and longitudinal wave slowness-resistivity cross plot. Further analyses on solid bitumen should concentrate on the relationship between its structure and reflectance. The way to calibrate solid bitumen with logging parameters quantitatively will be the difficult and hot spot in the future solid bitumen analyses.
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Relationship Between Shale Pressure System and Organic Pore Development of Wufeng-Longmaxi Formation in Marginnal Conversion Zone of Southeastern Chongqing Basin
Gao Yuqiao, Cai Xiao, He Xipeng, Wu Yanyan, Ding Anxu, Gao Hequn, Zhang Peixian
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 662-674.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190130
Abstract124)      PDF(pc) (17689KB)(53)       Save
Southeastern Sichuan basin and its marginal transition zone (hereinafter referred to as the basin-margin transition zone of SE Chongqing) is the focus of normal-pressure shale gas exploration in China. In order to understand the law of the shale gas enrichment in the southeastern Chongqing, to optimize the rough layers of horizontal well, and further guide the three-dimensional development and construction of the multi-layer system, the relationship between shale pressure system and the development of organic pores was studied by using the image quantitative characterization technology based on scanning electron microscope and the experimental analysis results of triaxial mechanics and liquid nitrogen adsorption. The results show that the organic pore size is small(1-30 nm) in the lower part of Wufeng-Longmaxi Formation shale,but the density of pore development is high(55.55-808.03 count/μm2). The organic pore size is high(30-50 nm) in the upper part,but the density of pore development is small(47.31-466.42 count/μm2). There is a significant positive correlation between pressure coefficient and roundness of organic holes. With the increase of fluid pressure in the pore, the pore will not be deformed by the overburden formation pressure, so that the pore can be better preserved. volume fractal dimension based on liquid nitrogen adsorption experiment show that the increase of fluid pressure in the pore can support the pore better, and ensure the difference of organic pore development is the common result of overburden formation pressure and pore fluid pressure. For the atmospheric pressure area, the pressure of overlying strata has important influence on pore development. For the overpressure zone, the increase of fluid pressure in the pore will slow down the deformation and disappearance of the pore. The realization of triaxial mechanics shows that the existence of Guanyinqiao Formation will increase the compressive strength of rock, thus forming a pressure partition in the vertical direction, resulting in the difference of pressure coefficient between the upper and lower layers, forming different subpressure systems, resulting in the difference of pore development characteristics.
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Application and Effect of Seismic Well Joint Modeling Technology in B1DD Block of Sarto Oilfield
Liu Jinping, Yang Maoxin, Shao Yingmei
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 579-588.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200003
Abstract121)      PDF(pc) (23350KB)(28)       Save
In order to overcome the obvious limitations of the depth and breadth of single-hole data in previous reservoir description, the authors propose a method of well-seismic joint geological modeling. Firstly, based on the horizon data and fault data of fine seismic interpretation and combined with logging data,a structural model is established. Then the probability of the seismic inversion body is used to control the sedimentary microfacies, and the vertical probability distribution curves of each microfacies are classified and statistically analyzed. Further,based on the analysis of the variogram data, a sedimentary facies model is established through algorithm simulation of spatial distribution of microfacies. Finally, the reservoir attribute model is established by using facies control technology and geostatistical theory to analyze the characteristics of parameter regionalized variables. The verification results in the B1DD block of Salto oilfield in Daqing show that a large number of small faults are found through application of seismic data, the breakpoint combination rate is increased by 15%, and the prediction coincidence rate of sandstones over 2 m reaches more than 90%. The prediction accuracy of faults and sandstones between wells is improved, and the accuracy of geological models, especially the models between wells, is also improved through the application of this joint modeling method.
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Analysis of Gas-Water Distribution and Water Production Control Factors in the East 2nd Area of Sulige Gas Field
Lin Mengxiong, Liu Li, Zhang Yiguo, Chang Sen, Xia Yang
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 627-634.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190316
Abstract120)      PDF(pc) (6901KB)(67)       Save
Aiming at the gas and water distribution and control factors needed for the efficient and sustainable development of low-porosity and low-permeability tight sandstone gas reservoirs, a comprehensive analysis of gas reservoir geological and production dynamic data was conducted in the East 2nd area of Sulige gas field. The results show that:1) the geological structure and the intensity of hydrocarbon generation control the macro-pattern of gas-water distribution in this area, and the gas reservoirs are developed on the low-lying part or micro-structure near the source rocks; 2) the physical parameters of reservoir play a key role in controlling the gas-water distribution; 3) the sand bodies with good physical properties have less capillary resistance, and natural gas is more likely to displace the formation water in sandstone reservoirs to form gas layers. The porosity of the gas layers in the study area is between 7% and 14%, and the permeability is between 0.50×10-3 and 2.00×10-3 μm2. The factors such as mudstone barriers complicate the gas-water distribution. The thickness increase of the mudstone barrier in the first Member of Shanxi Formation leads to the decrease of daily gas production but increase water production in the 8th Member of Shihezi Formation in the corresponding area. It is concluded that the production capacity of tight sandstone gas reservoirs is greatly affected by the development method. The pressure sensitive and velocity sensitive effects should be considered for a reasonable production allocation of gas reservoirs:the longer the production time is, the greater the production pressure difference is, the faster the gas well water production rate, and the larger the water production volume. The horizontal well development can increase the drainage area of gas wells, and it can, in turn, reduce the production pressure difference and the water-gas ratio, increase productivity, and extend the water-free or low-water gas recovery period and recovery ratio.
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Logging Evaluation of In-Situ Leachable Sandstone Uranium Mineralization in Sifangtai Formation of Daqing Placanticline, Songliao Basin
Yu Yang, Wang Zhuwen, Ning Qinqin, Xu Fanghui
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (3): 929-940.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190165
Abstract120)      PDF(pc) (12768KB)(45)       Save
In order to study the relationship between porosity, permeability and clay content and sandstone-type uranium mineralization, the authors analyzed the sandstone at the bottom of Sifangtai Formation in a block south of Daqing Placanticline in the central depression of Songliao basin. The uranium-bearing ore sandstone has high radioactivity, which makes the density value of the logging curve decrease and the natural gamma value rise abnormally. Through the research, this paper summarizes the method of correcting the density by using the increased natural gamma, and the method of reconstructing natural gamma by using other curves unaffected by radioactivity. Through the comparative analysis with the core, it is proved that the corrected density and the reconstructed natural gamma are more accurate. The problem that the parameters of porosity and permeability of uranium-bearing sandstone are calculated by logging curve is solved by the correction of density and the reconstruction of natural gamma. Based on the accurate calculation of the logging parameters, the spatial distribution and mapping analysis of the physical properties are obtained, which can show the characteristics of heterogeneity in sand body. It is concluded that the sand bodies producing uranium ore are not in the place with the best or the worst porosity and permeability, but in the place with the transition from high porosity and permeability to low porosity and permeability.
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Genesis of Biliya Valley Ag-Pb-Zn Polymetallic Deposit on Western Slope of Great Xing'an Range
Liang Xiaolong, Sun Jinggui, Qiu Dianming, Xu Zhitao, Gu Xiaoli, Ren Zening
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (3): 781-799.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190159
Abstract119)      PDF(pc) (30005KB)(55)       Save
Biliya Valley Ag-Pb-Zn deposit is located in the Derbugan metallogenic belt on the western slope of Great Xing'an Range, which was discovered in recent years. The orebody types are vein, veinlet disseminated, and breccia. The ore bodies occur mainly in the Middle Jurassic intermediate-basic volcanic rocks of Tamulangou Formation and the felsic volcanic rocks of Manketouebo Formation, and are controlled by the NW-extending faults. According to the mineral association, ore fabric, and vein body interpenetration, the ore formed in four stages:silicified quartz + pyrite stage (Ⅰ),quartz + pyrite + sphalerite stage (Ⅱ),quartz+pyrite+sphalerite+galena+argentite+chalcopyrite±tetrahedrite stage (Ⅲ), and quartz + pyrite + calcite + fluorite ±opal stage (Ⅳ). The study on the fluid inclusions(FIs) of quartz and sphalerite shows that the FIs in quartz of the early stages (Ⅰ and Ⅱ) are composed of liquid-rich (WL type) and CO2-H2O (C type) types. Their homogenization temperature, salincty, and density vary from 188 to 254℃, 1.83% to 4.79%, and 0.81 to 0.94 g/cm3 respectively, and the fluid in this stage belongs to H2O-NaCl-CO2 system with low temper ature and medium-low salinity. The FIs in quartz and sphalerite of the main stage (Ⅲ) are composed of liquid-rich (WL type) type, their homogenization temperature, salincty, and density vary from 160 to 188℃, 3.69% to 7.15%, and 0.92 to 0.96 g/cm3 respectively, and the fluid in this stage generally belongs to H2O-NaCl-CH4 system with medium-low temperature and low salinity. The FIs in quartz of the late stage (Ⅳ) are composed of liquid-rich (WL type) and liquid (L type) types, their homogenization temperature, salincty, and density vary from 130 to 165℃, 1.22% to 3.53%, and 0.93 to 0.95 g/cm3 respectively, and the fluid in this stage generally belongs to H2O-NaCl system with low temperature and low salinity. The hydrogen-oxygen isotope geochemical characteristics of fluid inclusions reveal that the δ18OH2O-SMOW and δDH2O-SMOW values of ore-forming fluids in the early stages vary from -6.3‰ to -5.9‰ and -163.4‰ to -162.7‰, respectively. The δ18OH2O-SMOW value of ore-forming fluids in the main stage is -14.4‰, and δDH2O-SMOW values of ore-forming fluids in the main stage vary from -165.4‰ to -162.0‰. The δ18OH2O-SMOW and δDH2O-SMOW values of ore-forming fluids in the late stage are -19.1‰ and -150.7‰, respectively. The 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb ratios of the lead isotope composition of metal sulfides vary from 18.435 to 18.513, 15.579 to 15.675, and 38.283 to 38.603, respectively. These features reveal that the ore-forming fluids of the deposit belong to H2O-NaCl-CH4 system with low temperature and low salinity; and the initial ore-forming fluid was mainly derived from the magmatic water, which was then mixed with meteoric water during mineralization; the ore-forming materials came from a mixed crustal and mantle source. Biliya Valley deposit is a low-sulfidation epithermal Ag-Pb-Zn polymetallic deposit, which is related to the volcanic-subvolcanic activity similar to the same type of deposits in the region. The mineralization occurred in Early Cretaceous (131.3 Ma), in a back-arc extension related subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate.
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Characterization of Pore Structure and Petrophysical Properties of Tight Sandstone of Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin
Wang Fuyong, Cheng Hui
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (3): 721-731.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190141
Abstract118)      PDF(pc) (5382KB)(56)       Save
Based on fractal theory, the pore structures of tight sandstone of Yanchang Formation in Ordos basin were characterized by high pressure mercury intrusion (HPMI) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The fractal dimension from mercury intrusion capillary pressure was calculated by 3D capillary tube model and wetting phase model, the fractal dimensions of macropores, mesopores, micropores and total pores from NMR T2 spectra were calculated by NMR model, and the correlations between the calculated fractal dimension and petrophysical properties were analyzed. The research results show that the fractal dimensions calculated by mercury capillary pressure and capillary tube model have a better correlation with the petrophysical properties than those by wetting phase model. With the increase of fractal dimension, the median pore radius decreases, the pore structure heterogeneity increases, and the petrophysical properties of tight sandstone become worse; the fractal dimensions of total pores are poorly correlated to tight sandstone petrophysical properties. After the pore size ranges are divided into macropores, mesopores,and micropores, the calculated fractal dimensions of macropores and mesopores are strongly correlated to tight sandstone petrophysical properties compared to micropores, and the petrophysical properties become worse with the increase of the fractal dimensions of macropores and mesopores. It shows that tight sandstone petrophysical properties are mainly dominated by macropores and mesopores, and the fractal dimension can effectively characterize the influence of micropores, mesopores, and macropores on the tight sandstone petrophysical properties.
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Shale Gas Enrichment Model of Well GFD1 in Middle Pingle Depression, Jiangxi Province
Teng Long, Shen Xuehua, Fang Chaogang, Zheng Hongjun, Zhu Yingxin
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (3): 757-767.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190114
Abstract116)      PDF(pc) (15206KB)(44)       Save
In order to investigate the potential of oil and gas resources of Upper Permian Leping Formation in Pingle depression, the well GFD1 was deployed to prospect shale gas, coal bed gas, and tight sandstone gas in Qujiang syncline in Fengcheng area, in central Jiangxi Province. The shale gas enrichment model was studied based on the data of drilling, organic geochemistry, petrological parameter, and gas-bearing characteristics, etc. The type of organic matter is mainly type Ⅱ2-Ⅲ. The total organic carbon (TOC) content in Wangpanli Member and Laoshan Member is sufficient with high-maturity. The average brittle mineral mass percent is 34.84%, which is prone to later fracturing. The high logging of total hydrocarbon indicates that the gas is rich in this syncline. The field desorption shows that the coal bed gas is more than 1.00 m3/t, with an average of 3.54 m3/t, the shale gas content varies between 0.10 and 1.50 m3/t, with an average of 0.54 m3/t, and the tight sandstone gas is lower than 0.30 m3/t. The structure of the north side of Qujiang syncline is normal, while the south side is a reverse fault, which is benefitial for oil and gas sealing.
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Geochemistry and Geochronology of Ore-Bearing Formation in Jinan BIF-Type Iron Deposit in Helong Area, Jilin Province
Ren Yunsheng, Liu Xiaohe, Shang Qingqing, Chen Cong, Yang Qun, Hao Yujie, Sun Zhenming
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (3): 800-814.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20180236
Abstract114)      PDF(pc) (20553KB)(36)       Save
Jinan iron deposit is one of the BIF-type of deposits discovered early in the Northeast China, which is located in the north part of Longgang massif, at the joint of the North China craton and the Xing'an-Mongolia orogenic belt. The layered, stratified, and lenticular iron orebodies are mainly hosted within the metamorphic rocks of Jinan Formation, Anshan Group. The ore-bearing rocks mainly include biotite plagioclase gneiss, amphibole biotite plagioclase gneiss, biotite amphibole plagioclase gneiss, and amphibolite, which experienced amphibolite facies regional metamorphism. The ore types are mainly comprised of BIF-type and massive magnetite amphibolite type. To determine the tectonic setting of ore-bearing formation of Jinan deposit, the geochemical analysis and LA-ICP-MS were conducted for the intermediate-basic rocks. The geological and geochemical features, together with the protolith re-constrution diagrams, indicate that the protolith of the amphibolite is sub-alkaline basalt (tholeiite) formed in the back arc basin. The LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating of the amphibolite shows that the ages of two old metamorphic zircons are (2 468±15) and (2 469±9) Ma, representing the peak metamorphism age in this area (~2 460 Ma). The concentrated ages of 26 metamorphic zircons were (2 275±25) Ma, representing the retrograde metamorphic age in the area. A comprehensive comparison with the typical BIFs both at home and abroad indicates that Jinan and Guandi iron deposit in Helong area belongs to Algoma-type.
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Geochemical Characteristics and Geological Significance of Upper Permian Linxi Formation in Northern Songliao Basin
Zhang Jian, Zhang Haihua, Chen Shuwang, Zheng Yuejuan, Zhang Dejun, Su Fei, Huang Xin
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 518-530.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190274
Abstract113)      PDF(pc) (5448KB)(42)       Save
Experimental data of the major elements, trace elements and rare earth elements of the dark argillaceous slate from the Upper Permian Linxi Formation in Well Heifudi 1 of the northern Songliao basin were examined so as to discuss the geochemical characteristics, sedimentary environment and tectonic background of the Linxi Formation. The average content of major elements is SiO2=65.05%, Al2O3=17.23%, CaO=2.58%, Na2O=2.84%, and K2O=3.29%. K2O/Na2O is 0.20-3.48, and A12O3/(CaO+Na2O) is 0.41-8.01. The ΣREE is between 80.68×10-6 and 215.59×10-6 (average 173.41×10-6), the δEu negative anomaly is between 0.61 and 0.88 (average 0.70), and the Ce negative anomaly is between 0.91×10-6 and 1.01×10-6, relatively weak. The clastic rocks are characterized by LREE enrichment and HREE depletion. The trace elements are characterized by a loss of Nb, Ta, and Sr, and are relatively rich in Rb, Ba, La, Ce, Pb, Nd, and Sm. The elemental analysis of core samples and the results of w(TiO2)-w(Ni)and La/Th-w(Hf)indicate that the sediment source of Linxi Formation is diverse, mainly from felsic rock of the upper crust with a minority of intermediate-basic igneous provenance. The results of trace element standardized spider web map, rare earth element chondrite standardized partition pattern,diagrams of K2O/Na2O-w(SiO2), Th-Co-Zr/10, F2-F1 structural background discrimination,and geochemical parameters comparison indicate that the provenance of Linxi Formation in Well Heifudi 1 is mainly from active continental margin and continental island arc,which would like be formed in the marine-terrestrial transitional to terrestrial environment.
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Application of UAV Photogrammetry in Mine Geological Environment Survey
Wang Fengyan, Zhao Mingyu, Wang Mingchang, Zhang Xuqing, Zhou Kai
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (3): 866-874.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190142
Abstract113)      PDF(pc) (15326KB)(227)       Save
Traditional field survey of mine geological environment is easily affected by traffic and terrain,and labor intensity, the working efficiency is low, and the cost is high. In this paper, the application of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry technology in mine geological environment survey is studied. By taking Changchun Jingyue Dongsheng quarry as the study area, the ground control point coordinates were determined by using the RTK(real-time kinematic), and the geometric information related to the mining environment in the study area was obtained by using DJI Phantom 4 UAV for aerial photography, such as slope orientation, length, height, volume, surface area, landslides, collapsed deposits, and faults. After measurement and interpretation, the 3D model of the study area was established by using Pix4Dmapper, topographic maps, DOM,and DSM of the study area were made,meanwhile,a lot of trace and orientation information of random discontinuities were interpreted. The results show that the mine geological environment survey based on UAV photogrammetry technology can quickly obtain the information of mine geological environment, and the discontinuity dip and dip angle errors obtained are within 5° and 4° respectively, which meet the precision requirement of mine geological environment survey.
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Reservoir Characteristics and Control Factors of Hydrocarbon Production of JZ25-1S Archean Buried-Hill in Bohai Bay Area
Gao Kunshun, Ye Tao, Sun Zhe, Lu Fengting, Chen Xinlu, Deng Hui
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (3): 694-704.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190098
Abstract111)      PDF(pc) (20989KB)(60)       Save
For the efficient exploration and development of metamorphic oil fields,it is of great significance to divide the types of metamorphic rock reservoirs and establish the relationship between different types of reservoirs and productivity. Based on the data of core, thin section, physical property, conventional logging, imaging logging,and production logging, the reservoir types,and their logging response characteristics of oil field JZ25-1S in Bohai Bay area were analyzed, and the differences in capacity of different types of reservoirs were discussed. The results show that there are weathering crust type reservoirs, inner-broken reservoirs, and inner-fracture reservoirs developed, and their main space types are dissolution pores-fractures, inter-gravel pores, and structural fractures respectively with different logging response characteristics. The reservoir with capacity greater than 2 m3/d per meter is defined as efficient seepage reservoir. The weathering crust and the inner broken zone are the main effective seepage reservoirs, and the seepage capacity of the inner fractured reservoirs changes greatly. The reservoir type, fracture density and the direction of fracture strike, and the main stress direction control the capacity difference of the metamorphic rock reservoirs
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Genetic Mechanism of High Content Tuffaceous Clastic Rock Reservoir in Hailar-Tamucage Basin
Meng Qi'an, Li Junhui, Li Yue, Zou Yue
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 569-578.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190317
Abstract110)      PDF(pc) (13643KB)(63)       Save
High content of tuffaceous clastic rock reservoirs are widely developed in Tongbomiao Formation and Nantun Formation in the central oil-rich depression of Hailar-Tamucage basin,but the genetic mechanism is unclear. Based on the comprehensive analyses of core, logging, well logging and thin section data, combined with the volcanic events in Hailar-Tamucage basin and its surrounding areas, it is considered that the high tuffaceous clastic rocks developed in the middle oil-rich depression include mainly tuffaceous sandstone, tuffaceous mudstone, and tuffs. In different periods, the development characteristics of high content tuffaceous clastic rock reservoirs are different in different depressions. As a whole, the tuffaceous content in the reservoirs from Tongbomiao Formation to Nantun Formation is getting lower and lower. The high tuffaceous clastic reservoir is mainly developed in the sedimentary period of Tongbomiao Formation and the lower part of Nantun Formation. The volcanic material in the high content tuffaceous clastic rock reservoir is not derived from the basic volcanic activity in the fault depression period, but from the large-scale acidic volcanic eruption event in Daxing'anling area. There are two types of genetic mechanism of the high content tuffaceous clastic reservoir in Hailar-Tamucage basin:one is the direct air drop type of volcanic ash in the same sedimentary period, and the other is the water carrying type that the volcanic ash first dropped on the land and then deposited after being transported in the same sedimentary period. The pyroclastic material in the high tuffaceous clastic rock reservoir is easy to be dissolved by organic acid to form the secondary pores, which provided effective reservoir spaces for the deep oil and gas accumulation, and the volcanic eruption promoted the formation of high-quality source rocks, which is of great significance for oil and gas exploration.
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Response Mechanism Between Oil Yield and Total Organic Carbon of Non-Marine Oil Shale in China
Jia Jianliang, Liu Zhaojun, Meng Qingtao, Sun Pingchang, Xu Jinjun, Liu Rong, Bai Yueyue
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 368-377.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190309
Abstract110)      PDF(pc) (11758KB)(211)       Save
In order to establish the reliable model between oil yield and total organic carbon (TOC) of oil shale to predict oil yield, it is very important to reveal the response mechanism between oil yield and TOC in different genetic types of oil shale of continental basins. In this paper, the response mechanism between oil yield and TOC in non-marine oil shale was studied by using the key parameters of borehole cores in various types of basins combined with sedimentology, organic geochemistry, and thermal simulation. The results show that an excellent correlation (R2=0.81-0.97) between oil yield and TOC exists in oil shales from different types of basins and sedimentary backgrounds. Firstly, the non-marine oil shale is divided into five genetic types, which control the relationship between oil yield and TOC. Secondly, three weight-loss stages of oil shales were presented during heating simulation, which clarifies the specific physical significance of oil yield and TOC parameters. Finally, the oil shale formed in similar basin and sedimentary background has similar organic matter source, so it has roughly equivalent hydrocarbon regeneration efficiency. The genetic types of non-marine oil shale, the physical significance of oil yield and TOC parameters, and the hydrocarbon regeneration capacity of oil shale were used to understand the internal relationship between oil yield and TOC of non-marine oil shale in China.
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Metallogenic System of Integrated Exploration Area and New Exploration Progress
Yu Xiaofei, Lü Zhicheng, Sun Hairui, Li Yongsheng, Yuan Huixiang, Du Zezhong, Gong Fanying, Lü Xin, Du Yilun, Wang Chunnü
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (5): 1261-1288.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200070
Abstract108)      PDF(pc) (29009KB)(101)       Save
The integrated exploration areas (IEA) are located in the paleo-Asian Ocean, circum Pacific Ocean, and Tethys melallogenic domain,with favorbale metallogenic conditions, rich in mineral resources,and diversified types of deposits. Currently, a total of 141 IEAs are arranged over 26 main metallogenic belts in China. Based on the theory of metallogenic system, we carried out a preliminary research on the typical IEAs, and divided them into three and four types of metallogenic systems according to tectonic dynamic mechanism and metallogenic mechanism, respectively, and further divided them into 24 subsystems. In addition, we reclassified 14 metallogenic series and 34 ore deposit types, established the structural model of typical deposits, and on this basis, 15 spatial structural models of metallogenic systems were established. On this basis,using the idea of vacancy prospecting, we adjusted the approach of mineral exploration and made breakthroughs in mineral exploration of new types, new areas, and new space, which promoted the development of the theories of metallogenic system and prospecting prognosis in exploration areas.
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Origin, Evolution of Ore-Forming Fluids and Metallogenic Mechanism of Nianzigou Molybdenum Deposit, Inner Mongolia
Sun Fengyue, Wang Rui, Wang Yicun, Li Shunda, Wang Keyong, Shi Kaituo, Sun Qingfei, Wang Wenyuan
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (3): 768-780.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190121
Abstract107)      PDF(pc) (13123KB)(56)       Save
Nianzigou molybdenum deposit is located in the western part of the Xilamulun molybdenum metallogenic belt at the north margin of North China Craton, which is a medium-sized typical quartz vein type deposit. The ore veins mainly occur in the NNW, NW trending faults developed in the monzonitic granite-moyite intrusions of Early Yanshanian. The hydrothermal mineralization can be divided into four stages:pyrite ±molybdenite+quartz(Ⅰ), molybdenite+pyrite ±chalcapyrite+quartz (Ⅱ), chalcopyrite+pyrite ±sphalerite+quartz (Ⅲ), and quartz ±calcite (Ⅳ). The systematic study on petrography of fluid inclusions, fluid inclusion assemblages,and micro-thermometry shows that the primary ore forming fluids are of high temperature (490-550℃),low-medium salinity NaCl-H2O type solutions (10%-18%); their δ18OH2O-SMOW(2.21‰)and δDH2O-SMOW(-68.9‰)imply that they were originally from magmatic activities, and continuously up-rose and gathered into ore-controlling faults; later with the gradual decrease of temperature and pressure(380-460℃, 26-40 MPa→360-420℃, 25-30 MPa), the state of immiscible two-phase appeared, and the fluid began to boil, which resulted in the deposition of large amounts of Mo; at the late stage of the fluid evolution, the residual solution mixed with meteoric water. Nianzigou Mo deposit is a medium-high temperature magmatic hydro thermal deposit in Early Yanshanian.
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LA-ICP-MS Zicon U-Pb Geochronology, Geochemistry and Geological Significance of Granodiorites in Lancai Area, Tongren, Qinghai
Ren Wenkai, Wang Shengyun, Chen Libiao, Wu Shaofeng, Zhang Haiqing
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 1059-1074.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20180228
Abstract107)            Save
The geochemical characteristics and the LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of the granodiorites in Lancai area, Tongren, Qinghai were studied,and the petrogenesis and tectonic significance were discussed. The results show that the crystallization age of Lancai granodiorite is (231.4±2.9) Ma (MSWD = 0.024). The ∑REE of the granitoide is 138.76×10-6-197.19×10-6. The REE patterns is rightward inclined with negative Eu anomaly. The trace element geochemistry is characterized evidently by the negative anomalies of Nb, Ta, Ti, Sr, Ba, P, etc. and positive anomalies of Rb, K, Th, U, etc. The granodiorites show the characteristics of metaluminous and belong to high-K calc-alkaline series. Lancai granodiorite is I-type granitoids. Based on the existing research results, Lancai granodiorite may be formed through partial melting of basic rocks in the crustal thickening geodynamic environment characterized mainly by compression on the whole and local shear extension,and the mantle-derived magmas may play an important role in the formation of the granodiorite.
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Mineralization Types,Re-Os Dating of Dahu-Qinnan Molybdenum Deposit and Exploration in Xiaoqinling Mt, Central China
Zhang Yuanhou, Liu Jinwei, Wen Bin, Du Shangze, Qu Wenjun
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (3): 815-824.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20180297
Abstract106)      PDF(pc) (6486KB)(42)       Save
Dahu-Qinnan molybdenum deposit in Xiaoqinling is within the Xiong'ershan-Waifangshan metallogenic subzone, which is located at the margin of North China platform. Its mineralization types are divided into Mo-bearing secondary quartzite and vein disseminated associated with granitoid mineralization types. The textures are characterized by breccia,lump,porous,stockwork, and massive. The alterations are dominated by disseminated and stockwork of potassic + sillific + carbonated + argillic + anhydrited. The vein and stockwork with disseminated mineralization is closely associated with the granitoid,occasionally occurs within gneiss nearby the Mo-bearing secondary quartzite. The alterations in vein and stockwork ores are mainly characterized by feldspar + quartz + sericite,with minor pyrite + kaolin + carbonate. The Mo-bearing secondary quartzite ores usually contain granitoid breccia associated with veins. The field evidences show that the Mo-bearing granitoid is disintegrated near its contacted zone to small breccias,and finally disappeared inside of the Mo-bearing secondary quartzite; on the contrary, the Mo-bearing secondary quartzite thickens with the increase of intensive argillic and anhydrite alteration. The results suggest that the Mo-bearing secondary quartzite is derived from the Mo-bearing granitoids.12 samples of molybdenite were taken from the Mo-bearing secondary quartzite and the Mo-bearing granitoids in Dahu-Qinnan molybdenum deposit. The age of Re-Os molybdenite of Dahu-Qinnan molybdenum deposit is (223.6±4.1) Ma to (196.1±3.0) Ma and(197.8±3.2)Ma to(196.1±3.3)Ma. The Re-Os isochron age is (199 + 14/-25) Ma. This result suggests that the molybdenum mineralization of Dahu-Qinnan deposit took place in Indosinian, or early Yanshanian. The excellent correlation between the Re-Os ages from molybdenite and the ages of granitoids in the area indicate a direct genetic relation between the granitic porphyry and syenite porphyry. The similarity of the Mo-bearing granitoids in Dahu-Qinnan deposit and the classic porphyry deposit in mineralization and alteration pattern implies that this area has the porphyry molybdenum deposit potential for the exploration of porphyry molybdenum deposits. The Re content in molybdenite is 0.894×10-6-2.964×10-6,indicating that the molybdenum materials come from the crust. Alkaline rocks are dominated during Indosinian,suggesting that the molybdenum mineralization occurred in continental extension tectonics. It is suggested that exploration of molybdenum porphyry should be carried out in Indosinian granitoids.
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Mechanism of Strong Calcium Cementation in Tight Sandstone and Its Significance:A Case Study on Triassic Chang 7 Oil Formation of Yanchang Formation in Ordos Basin
Cui Jingwei, Zhu Rukai
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 957-967.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20180260
Abstract106)            Save
Based on core and thin section observation, fluorescence microscope, cathode luminescence microscope, isotope mass spectrometer, and heating/freezing stage, the strong calcareous cementation sandstone and its nearby oil-bearing sandstone of Chang 7 oil formation in Ordos basin were studied. Thin section observation indicates that calcite cementation is the main factor that causes oil-bearing heterogeneity in tight sandstone reservoir, and the majority of cementation occurs at the same period. The result of clumped isotope of the calcite shows that the formation temperature is from 18 to 42 ℃. The corresponding geological period is from the Middle and Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic, a product of early diagenesis related to the early small scale tectonic movement of the basin. The homogenization temperature of the saltwater inclusions associated with oil and gas inclusions is from 90 to 120 ℃, which means that the time of oil filling is Early Cretaceous. In Chang 7 oil Formation, the formation time of the calcareous cement in the non oil tight sandstone is earlier than the oil filling time in the oil-bearing sandstone.
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Safe Drilling Technology of High Pressure Salt Paste Formation in Halfaya Oilfield, Iraq
Xie Chunlai, Wang Zhaoyang, Qiu Yue, Gou Guangzhou, Gao Junfei, Yin Guang, Wu Yong
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 589-597.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200021
Abstract104)      PDF(pc) (5814KB)(30)       Save
Drilling of salt paste layers is one of the problems of current drilling technology. During the drilling construction, there are problems such as the difficulty in safe drilling of salt paste and soft mudstone layers, control of well quality, and high probability of stuck drilling, etc. Based on the formation conditions of Halfaya oilfield in Iraq, the authors changed the casing sealing point of salt-gypsum interval,effectively controlled the casing leakage,and optimized the angle of directional trajectory well from 71.29° to 29.48°, thus avoided the well sections that are easy to form rock chip beds and the well stuck in the directional sections, hereby the drilling efficiency was improved by 23%. The shrinkage period of soft mudstone in Halfaya oilfield is determined to be 48 h approximately. Drilling according to the diameter reduction law effectively reduced the formation of mud packs at the bit and mud rings. Through this study,the principle of controlling the density of saturated brine drilling fluid according to the content change of gypsum rock and salt rock is determined, and the on-site maintenance technical measure for viscosity control of saturated saline drilling fluid is formed.
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Geological Evaluation Method of Tight Sandstone Gas Exploitation Potential in Shanxi Formation in Linxing Area
Wu Meng, Zhu Chao, Qin Yunhu, Qin Yong, Shen Jian, Zhao Heng, Zhu Shifei
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 991-1002.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190151
Abstract103)            Save
In order to further develop the tight sandstone gas in coal measures, a comprehensive research on various factors affecting the exploration potential of tight sandstone gas was conducted, and three secondary indicators (enrichment, hypertonicity, recoverability) and ten tertiary indicators were established for the evaluation of the tight gas potential of Shanxi Formation in Linxing area, northeast Ordos basin. Based on the development degree of sequence stratigraphic system, combined with fuzzy decision matrix and grey correlation analysis, the evaluation model of tight sandstone reservoir was established. Through sequence stratigraphic units, a fine division of favorable reservoirs is realized. The results show that the combination of the pairwise matrix method and the gray correlation analysis method not only improves the correlation between the data of six tertiary indicators in the "hypertonic" category, but also reduces the error caused by the subjectivity of the pairwise comparison method which depends on parameter weight. Combined with the distribution of coal and sand bodies in the sequence stratigraphic system tract, the reservoir division and evaluation are more accurate. It is concluded that the enrichment area of tight sandstone gas in Shan 1 Section is in the southwest, and in Shan 2 Section is in the northeast of the study area.
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Petrogenesis of Moyite from Xiagalaiaoyi Pb-Zn Deposit in Great Xing’an Range and Its Geological Significance
Yu Changsheng, Yang Yanchen, Han Shijiong, Yang Kunlin, Song Zhaoyang, Zhang Yihang, Wang Wang
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 1042-1058.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190205
Abstract103)            Save
Xiagalaiaoyi Pb-Zn deposit is located in the west section of the intersection line between the south edge of the Erguna block Ermul Mountain uplift and the north margin of the Great Xing’an Range volcanic belt, northwest of Heilongjiang Province. Non-contemporaneous intrusive rocks are widely distributed in Xiagalaiaoyi district, and the ore bodies occur in the intermediate-acrid hypabyssal intrusive rocks and their contact zone with marble. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating results show that the diagenetic age of moyite is (168.9±2.1) Ma-(165.9±2.1) Ma, suggesting that the metallogenic age of Xiagalaiaoyi Pb-Zn deposit is Middle Jurassic. Based on the geochemical data, the moyite belongs to quasi-aluminous to weakly per-aluminous alkaline A-type granite,which is characterized by high Si, K and alkali, poor Al, A/CNK value of 0.97-1.02, and the saturation temperature of zircons ranges from 760 to 851℃ (average 811℃). The granite exhibits weakly negative Eu anomalies (δEu=0.01-0.27), enrichment of LREE, large ion lithophile elements (such as Rb and K), high-field strength elements (such as Th, U, Zr and Hf), and depletion of HREE and high-field strength elements (such as P, Ti, Nb and Ta). The rocks belong to low-Sr and high-Yb type granites with Sr (13.20-62.80)×10-6(average 38.95×10-6)and Yb(2.44-7.81)×10-6(average 4.50×10-6). Combined with the relevant regional tectonic evolution research, we conclude that the moyite formation is closely related to the extensional environment after the closure of the Mongolia Okhotsk Ocean during Middle Jurassic.
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Zircon U-Pb Age, Petrological Geochemistry and Tectonic Implication of Alkaline Granitein South-Eastern Jilin Province
Chen Huijun, Yu Hongbin, Ma Yongfei, Chen Jingsheng, Qian Cheng, Liu Shiwei, Cui Tianri, Zhong Hui
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 531-541.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190239
Abstract103)      PDF(pc) (13310KB)(142)       Save
The Wunüfeng pluton is composed of alkaline granites,which is tectonically located at the NW Yalujiang fault in Ji'an area, Tonghua region. To determine its intrusive age and tectonic environment, mineralogical, petrological,and geochronological characteristics,a research of the pluton was carried out. The LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age of sample JWNF01 is (110.50±1.60)Ma, belong to the late Early Cretaceous. The pluton has high content of SiO2, Na2O+K2O, Al2O3 and low content of TiO2, and belongs to high-K Calc-alkaline series. The A/CNK values are 0.98-1.00, belong to meta-to weak peraluminous rocks. The solidification index (IS) is 0.80-3.20, reflecting that the rocks experienced high differentiation. δEu is 0.05-0.37, strongly depleted of Eu, LREE/HREE and (La/Yb)N values are 7.13-24.68 and 7.01-39.20 respectively, indicating that LREEs are enriched and HREEs are depleted, clear fractionation of LREE and HREE. Meanwhile, the Wunüfeng pluton is clearly rich in LILEs (e.g., Rb, K, Th, U), slightly rich in HFSEs (e.g., Nd, Sm, Zr, Hf),and poor in P, Ti. The mineralogy, geochronology, petrology,and regional geological information show that Wunüfeng pluton belongs to high-K Calc-alkaline A-type granite, which was formed in an extensional tectonic background during post-orogeny period.
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Stability of Pb2+ Passivation Products for Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil Remediation
Zhao Yuyan, Jiang Weiming, Zang Libin, Sun Wen, Tang Xiaodan
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (3): 875-882.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190062
Abstract100)      PDF(pc) (7208KB)(53)       Save
The heavy metal elements in soil under natural conditions is a core concern in the solidification remediation of heavy metal pollution. Taking the common heavy metal Pb2+ as an example, the authors calculated the binding stability of heavy metals with ion groups in soil through applying the first principle to the analysis. The free energy, energy band,and density of states of PbCO3, PbSO4, PbCl2, Pb3(PO4)2, PbAl2O4, and Pb3Fe2(PO4)4 were calculated. The binding stability of Pb2+ with anions in soil such as CO32-, SO42-, Cl- and PO43- was deduced firstly, and then the influence of adding metal cations of Al3+ and Fe3+on the stability. The results show that the trend of free energy of lead compounds is Pb3Fe2(PO4)4 < Pb3(PO4)2 < PbSO4 < PbCO3 < PbAl2O4 < PbCl2, and the corresponding order of structural stability is PbCl2 < PbAl2O4 < PbCO3 < PbSO4 < Pb3(PO4)2 < Pb3Fe2(PO4)4. Through the analysis of energy band and density of states, it is considered that the introduction of SO42- and PO43- can enhance the stability of the lead-containing system, and further addition of the metal cation Fe3+ will make the system more stable. It is suggested that SO42- and PO43- are suitable functional groups for the treatment of Pb2+ pollution, and the substances easily to release SO42- and PO43- should be selected as the appropriate passivator.In future work, sodium dihydrogen phosphate,sodium sulfate and desulfurized gypsum can be used as passivators in field experiments.
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Separation and Primary Estimation of Blended Data by 3D Sparse Inversion
Wang Tiexing, Wang Deli, Sun Jing, Hu bin, Liu Sixiu
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (3): 895-904.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190147
Abstract99)      PDF(pc) (9545KB)(50)       Save
The blended acquisition of seismic data is widely used in the industry area; however, the seismic data acquired by such a method contain overlapping shot records of multiple sources, which is not conducive to the subsequent seismic data processing. A modified separation and primary estimation method for blended data based on 3D sparse inversion is proposed in this paper. We introduce the L1 norm bi-convex optimization into the solution process of estimating primary impulse responses by conventional EPSI and SPGL1 algorithm to get the global minima, so that the inversion process is stable. Besides, 2D curvelet transform and 1D wavelet transform are combined into a 3D sparse constraint to improve the calculation speed while ensuring the inversion accuracy. Compared to the conventional EPSI for blended data in the standard industry workflow, the effectiveness and superiority of this proposed method is verified in the application in synthetic data and marine field data.
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Improvement and Application of Pickett Plot for Well Logging Interpretation of Argillaceous Formation
Ding Lei, Zhang Hengrong, Yuan Wei, Zheng Zhifeng, Wang Yi
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (3): 911-918.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190031
Abstract98)      PDF(pc) (12040KB)(52)       Save
The regular Pickett plot is derived from Archie formula, which is not suitable for the evaluation of argillaceous formation in the west of the South China Sea. The authors modified the regular Pickett plot based on the Indonesian formula, developed a new Pickett plot for argillaceous formations, and proposed a method for calculating water resistivity and geoelectric parameters accurately by iteration. The study shows that the formation water resistivity calculated by the improved Pickett plot of argillaceous sandstone is consistent with that calculated by pure water layer. In comparison with the empirical value, water resistivity and geoelectric parameters obtained by the iterative method are more consistent with the actual situation.
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In Situ Analysis of Rare Earth Element Composition of Scheelite by LA-ICP-MS
Hao Yujie, Shang Qingqing, Ren Yunsheng, Liu Xiaohe, Chen Cong
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 1029-1041.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190111
Abstract97)            Save
Scheelite is a common accessory mineral in all kinds of deposits. The analysis of its rare earth element (REE) and the standardized distribution patterns can provide important discrimination basis for the evolution of ore-forming fluids. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in situ analysis of REE in scheelite was conducted by taking the samples from the two typical deposits in Northeast China, Yangjingou hydrothermal vein deposit and Yangbishan Skarn deposit. The REE distribution curves obtained by LA-ICP-MS of Yangbishan scheelite is completely consistent with the results obtained by the traditional solution-ICP-MS analysis, which show that using 193 nm ArF laser with denudation frequency of 7 Hz and denudation spot of 44 μm, the NIST 610 as the external standard and Ca as the internal standard element, the method is proved to be feasible with the least effective matrix and the reliable obtained data. The results of Yangjingou scheelite solution-ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS analysis have similarities and differences, while the REE distribution patterns in different mineral particles and different parts of the same mineral of Yangbishan scheelite is consistent. The result is that Yangbishan scheelite is of skarn-type with small size, and short-term formation; while Yangbishan scheelite is of hydrothermal vein type with large grain size, and long-term precipitation and crystallization. Based on the above comparative study, the LA-ICP-MS in situ analysis method has obvious advantages over traditional solution-ICP-MS analysis method, in aspect of sampling, testing process, and data accuracy. The advantages mainly display in that the simple sample form, low requirements in particle size and content, short test period, low cost, and high precision results, at the same time the contents of REE are obtained under the fine determination for different ore-forming stages or in a different part of scheelite, more detailed and accurate data information can be obtained at a higher spatial resolution. In addition, in the process of LA-ICP-MS in situ analysis of scheelite (especially those without obvious zonation), the content of Ca can be accurately determined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) or directly calculated by standard chemical formula. The data obtained from the analysis also can be reasonably geologically interpreted.
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Oil Shale Characteristics and Sedimentary Environment of Yan'an Formation in Middle Jurassic in Tanshan Area, Guyuan, Ningxia
Hai Lianfu, Wang Lei, Ma Zhijun, Xu Qinghai, Song Yang, Bai Jinhe
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (3): 747-756.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20180307
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There are abundant oil shale resources accompanied with coal in Tanshan area. Oil shale are mainly existed in coal-bearing strata of the middle and lower part of Yan'an Formation in Middle Jurassic. Based on the oil shale samples of Yan'an Formation obtained from boreholes, the characteristics and sedimentary environments were studied, and the identification basis of oil shale logging was defined in Tanshan area by low-temperature dry distillation, main element measurement,and drilling logging. The research shows that the oil shale in Tanshan area is mainly black, grayish black and dark gray, with light texture, low density,and low hardness. The oil shale has the characteristics of staggered, shell-like fracture, grease, asphalt luster, and block layer development. The oil-bearing ratio is 3.60%-9.00%, the ash is 42.50%-79.05%, the total sulfur is 0.07%-1.37%, and the calorific value is 11.01 kJ/g (average value), which belongs to medium quality because it is siliceous ash, low sulfur, and associated with coal. The content of SiO2 in oil shale varies greatly from 53.89% to 65.55%, Al2O3 is 17.45%-23.29%, K2O is significantly higher than Na2O, and Fe2O3+MgO value is 12.75%-21.98%, containing many potassium-bearing minerals and magnesium iron components. The Al2O3/(CaO+Na2O) value is 3.09-21.12, which reveals that the stable components in oil shale are high. The logging curves characteristics of oil shale are obviously different from the coal seams and mudstones. The data of gamma, sonic and density of oil shale are between the coal seam and the mudstone, and the resistivity is significantly lower than the coal seam and mudstone. The chemical alteration index of oil shale is 74.87-84.35, Sr/Ba value is 0.33-0.83 with average of 0.61, and Th/U value is 1.00-3.50, indicating that the oil shale sedimentary environment in Tanshan area was a warm, anoxic, and oxygen-poor terrestrial freshwater lake environment.
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Sedimentary Characteristics and Sedimentary Model of Glutenite Fans in Upper Es4 in L563 Area,North Steep Slope of Dongying Depression
Wang Xin, Lin Chengyan, Ma Cunfei, Chen Bingyi, Du Kai, Li Zhipeng
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (3): 705-720.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190061
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A large number of glutenite fans are developed in the north steep slope of Dongying depression;which is important in oil and gas exploration and development. In this paper, we focus on the sand-bearing conglomerate fan body and its gravity flow sedimentation in the north member of the No. 563 block in the northeast part of Dongying. Through the fine description of the core, the glutenite fan body is divided into eleven facies by lithology, grain size,and structure;then, with the same hydrodynamic conditions as the unit, according to lithology and sedimentary mechanism the lithofacies are combined vertically into eight hydrodynamic types and eight lithofacies combination types. Based on the spatial distribution, scale, contact relationship,and various environments represented by the seven types of mudstone subdivided by the structure and texture of the mudstone in the sediment, five types of sediments are defined for the glutenite fan:thick gravel deposits at the proximal end, restricted water channel deposit, unrestricted tongue deposit, non-channel thin layer deposit, and distal fine grain deposit. Based on a comprehensive analysis of features,six sedimentary microfacies types are identified,including fan root channel, channel, fan-shaped water channel, water channel, fan front edge,and fan end mud. It is believed that the glutenite fan in this area is a near-shore submerged fan. On the basis above, the sedimentary process and sedimentary model of the glutenite fan in this area are finally established.
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Determining Mixed Liquid Resistivity of Water-Flooded Reservoir Based on Micro-Element Dynamic Material Balance Model
Qin Min, Shen Huilin, Ding Lei, Liu Huan, Huang Xinxiong, Zhang Limin
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (3): 919-928.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190073
Abstract92)      PDF(pc) (7342KB)(26)       Save
One of the key techniques for logging evaluation of water-flooded reservoir is to determine the resistivity of the mixed liquid of water-flooded reservoir. At present, the method of calculating the resistivity of the mixed liquid of water-flooded reservoir needs to be improved. In this paper,a dimensional dynamic material balance method is proposed to accurately calculate the resistivity of formation mixed fluid. The method makes the water flooding process microelement and takes into account the variable exchange ratio of original water and the injected water ions in the water flooding process. In theory, the variable gradually changes from 0 to 1 with the increase of flooding degree. The comparison results show that the average relative errors of the rock resistivity calculated by the first derivative method, the variable magnification material balance method, and the improved micro-element dynamic material balance method are 0.192, 0.169, and 0.124 respectively. The improved micro-element dynamic material balance method is more accurate when measuring the mixed solution resistivity in different flooding types. The residual oil saturation can be calculated more accurately in well evaluation. The method has been applied to the well logging evaluation of different flooding types in major oil fields. The calculated water saturation of water-flooded reservoir is the closest to the saturation data of the closed coring. The comprehensive interpretation coincidence rate of the flooded reservoir logging reaches more than 87%.
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LA-ICP-MS U-Pb Dating of Detrital Zircons and Geological Implications of Linxi Formation in Linxi County, Inner Mongolia
Zhang Jian, Zhang Dejun, Zheng Yuejuan, Chen Shuwang, Zhang Haihua, Su Fei, Huang Xin
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 1090-1103.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20180230
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The detrital zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of the glutenite assemblage with lacking of biological fossils in Linxi County, Inner Mongolia was carried out to clarify the ages and material origin of the coarse clastic rocks and explore the tectonic evolution of the Xar Moron River suture. The detrital zircon ages fall in six groups of ca. (285±4)-(246±4) Ma (peak 264 Ma), (317±5)-(293±4) Ma (peak 310 Ma), (610±10)-(344±6) Ma (peak 423 Ma), (992±14)-(907±13) Ma, (1 467±18)-(1 424±22) Ma,and (1 948±14)-(1 768±16) Ma; besides, there are three zircons with the age of (1 171±17) Ma, (1 238±17) Ma, and (2 443±31) Ma, respectively. Most of the zircons show oscillatory or linear zoning in CL images and high Th/U ratios(>0.1), indicating that they are magmatic origin. We conclude that the depositional age of the coarse-grained clastic rocks is younger than 264 Ma, which should be Upper Permian Linxi Formation. The sedimentary provenance of Linxi Formation in Huichangdi area is mainly from the Jiamusi-Mongolia block with minor from the North China plate, which implies that the North China plate and the Jiamusi-Mongolia block merged in Late Permian at the position of Xar Moron River suture.
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Summary of Microseismic Location Methods
Da Shujin, Li Xuegui, Dong Hongli, Li Hanyang
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 1228-1239.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190216
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Microseismic positioning method is a core technology in the field of microseismic monitoring, and the criterion to consider the application effect of microseismic technology lies in the accuracy of the source positioning method. Given the application of unconventional oil and gas development in microseismic positioning, the authors expound on the microseismic positioning methods. Among them, the geometric mapping method has the advantages of robustness and high efficiency, but its positioning accuracy is low when the source location is deep; the linear positioning method does not need the accuracy of the velocity model, but has a great impact on the accuracy of first break pick-up; the nonlinear positioning method is more sensitive to first break picking and requires higher accuracy of the velocity model, but the calculation is small; the hybrid positioning method improves the positioning accuracy and efficiency to a certain extent, but the advantages are not obvious when the signal-to-noise ratio is low,and the speed model precision is not high; the positioning method based on waveform migration does not need to consider the precision of first break pick-up, but the calculation is large; the positioning method based on neural network using training network training is highly accurate, and the error is small. The authors also discuss the application of multi-method and multi-parameter information fusion technology in microseismic location of oil and gas reservoir.
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Sedimentary Characteristics Within Sequence Stratigraphic Framework of the Fourth Member of Xujiahe Formation in Middle Area of Western Sichuan Depression
Chen Xianliang, Ji Youliang, Yang Keming
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1615-1627.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190195
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The sedimentary characteristics within the sequence stratigraphic framework of the Fourth Member of Xujiahe Formation in the middle area of western Sichuan depression were studied by using outcrops, seismic data, cores, logging and analytical testing. The characteristics showed that the Fourth Member of Xujiahe Formation is a three-order sequence,which is divided into lowstand, transgressive,and highstand system tracts according to the sequence boundary characteristics. The isochronous sequence stratigraphic framework was established and its internal sedimentary characteristics was clarified:Four types of sedimentary facies were developed, including the alluvial fan, braided river, braided river delta, and lacustrine. The characteristics of sedimentary facies distribution and vertical evolution in the sequence stratigraphic framework were also clarified. Horizontally, the alluvial fan, braided river, braided river delta, and lacustrine facies are developed in turn in the short axis provenance from the front of Longmen Mountain, while the braided river delta front deposition is mainly developed in the long axis provenance, and the short and long axis provenances are intersected in the area ranging from Hexingchang to Xinfan; Vertically, the lowstand system tract and highstand system tract are dominated by the braided river delta front, and the subaqueous distributary channel sand bodies are vertically superimposed and horizontally contiguous and widely distributed. The transgressive system tract is dominated by the shore-shallow lacustrine. Eventually, a sequence-sedimentary filling model was established. This study suggests that the subaqueous distributary channel sand bodies from the long axis provenance and the convergence areas of short and long axis provenance are quality reservoirs in the lowstand system tract and highstand system tract.
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Reservoir Classification Method in Second Member of Liushagang Formation in Bailian Area, Fushan Sag
Wei Bo, Zhao Jianbin, Wei Yanwei, Li Zhenlin, Xiong Kui
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1639-1647.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190160
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The sandstone reservoir of the Second Member of Liushagang Formation in Bailian area in Fushan sag has the characteristics of deep buried,gravel developed and complex pore structures, which make it difficult to accurately evaluate the effectiveness of the reservoir. Aiming at this, the authors analyzed the core test data firstly to ensure that the main factor affecting the pore structure of the reservoir is the contact property of the skeleton particles, that is, the property of throat. Based on this research, the characterization of the reservoir effectiveness based on mercury intrusion experimental data was carried out, and the characterization of rock pore throat parameters (maximum radius, average radius, median radius, sorting coefficient) and rock porosity was constructed. The comprehensive indices of reservoir seepage and storage capacity were determined in combination with the oil test data to further establish regional reservoir classification criteria. Finally, by using the regression analysis to scale the conventional logging data, the evaluation of reservoir effectiveness using conventional logging data was realized, which is popularized and applied in actual production. The coincidence rate of logging interpretation is increased from 72% to 80%.
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Differences in Pyrolysis Hydrocarbon Generation and Hydrocarbon Exploration of Different Coal-Measures Source Rocks in Pinghu Formation, Xihu Sag
Tan Sizhe, Hou Kaiwen, Qin Jun, Tang Rui, Yang Min
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 968-978.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190168
Abstract87)            Save
This study mainly focuses on different coal-measures source rocks (coal, carbon mudstone, and dark mudstone) in Pinghu Formation of Xihu sag. Based on the thermal simulation experiment of closed-system gold tube-high pressure vessels, the differences of hydrocarbon products, yield characteristics, and the hydrocarbon generation dynamics among the three coal series source rocks were analyzed. It is discovered that coal, carbon mudstone, and dark mudstone have high generation capacity of gas and liquid hydrocarbon, but their hydrocarbon generation evolution models are different. The carbonaceous mudstone has the earliest hydrocarbon generation and the highest intensity; the coal rock ranks the second in hydrocarbon generation and the hydrocarbon generation intensity; the mudstone has the latest hydrocarbon generation, and its hydrocarbon generation intensity is the lowest. According to the characteristics of pyrolysis hydrocarbon generation, Xihu sag has the potential of coal-derived oil exploration, and the western slope belt is a favorable area for oil exploration.
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Stress Sensitivity and Prediction of Irreducible Water Saturation in Coal Reservoirs in Baode and Hancheng Blocks Based on Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Hou Wei, Zhao Tiantian, Zhang Lei, Xiong Xianyue, Xu Hao, Chao Haiyan, Zhang Wei, Wang Wei, Zhang Hui
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 608-616.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190252
Abstract85)      PDF(pc) (4604KB)(48)       Save
The stress change has an important influence on the irreducible water saturation in the process of coalbed methane development. A series of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments were performed on the coal samples from different rank coal reservoirs, the T2 cut-off value was calibrated by the empirical determination method of spectral pattern,the variation of irreducible water saturation with stress in different coal rank reservoirs was evaluated, and further, its dynamic changes with the development of coalbed methane in the study area were also predicted. The experimental results show that the irreducible water saturation has a strong stress sensitivity, and its change is the strongest at the initial stage of effective stress increase. Due to the difference of pore structure, the stress sensitivity is more intense in Baode block. The predicting result in Baode block shows that the total variation of initial irreducible water saturation affected by buried depth is smaller than that in Hancheng block because of the small variation range of buried depth in Baode block. In the process of coalbed methane development, the irreducible water saturation of shallow buried reservoirs has a stronger stress sensitivity, but the overall increase is basically the same at the end of the development process.
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Trace Elements Geochemical Characteristics of Reservoir Sediments Affected by Acid Mine Drainage
Cao Xingxing, Wu Pan, Zhou Shaoqi, Xie Feng, Rong Rong
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 1112-1126.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190015
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In order to understand the content and distribution characteristics of trace elements in reservoir sediments under the influence of acid mine drainage(AMD),the concentration and distribution of twenty-six trace elements were analyzed in the sediment cores from Maoshitou Reservoir and its inflow tributaries in Guizhou Province, Southwest China. The results show that the mean contents of Sr, Ba, Zr, V, Cr and As in the sediment cores are higher than 100 μg/g, and the content of As is the highest, the average content exceeds 800 μg/g; while the mean values of Be, Ta, Co, Ag are lower than 5 μg/g, the values of other elements lie in the range of 10 and 60 μg/g. Compared with the stream sediments without affected by AMD, the reservoir sediments in the study area are obviously rich in As and Sb. There are obvious positive correlations between Li, Be, Rb, Sr, Cs, Ba, Sc, Y, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta,and Th in reservoir sediments, and their distribution is basically similar, while there is a significant negative correlation between As and these elements. Element correlation analysis, factor analysis,and trace element diagrams show that Li, Be, Rb, Sr, Cs, Ba, Sc, Y, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Th, Cr,and Sb etc. are controlled by chemical weathering and physical erosion of watershed rock, which is the most important factor controlling the distribution of elements in the study area; while heavy metals (such as Cu and Cd etc.) are related to the dissolution of elements in the formation of AMD and the adsorption of fine particles such as organic matter. In addition, the ecological risks of Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn are low, while the ecological risks of As and Sb are high.
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Denudation Restoration and Structural Framework of Prototype Paleogene Basin in Tangyuan Fault Depression
Wu Jingfeng, Meng Qi'an, Fu Xiaofei
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (2): 542-552.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190104
Abstract84)      PDF(pc) (8717KB)(53)       Save
The structure of Tangyuan fault depression is complex,and its transformation is strong,which leads to the uncertainty of the original sedimentary subsidence center,and this, in turn, restricts the progress of oil and gas exploration. Starting from the calculation of denudation amount by using the stratigraphic trend method and the vitrinite reflectance method, the authors obtained the amount of stratum denudation of Baoquanling Formation,Dalianhe Formation, and Xin'ancun Formation, and restored the shape of the prototype basin in different periods combined with earthquake and structural features and the geological modeling technology. Through the calculation and recovery,it is considered that during Xin'ancun Formation period,the thickest part was in the eastern boundary,and the eastern sedimentary zone was formed by the influence of paleo-tectonics, and was divided by the middle uplift into two parts,the north and the south,the subsidence center was located in the middle section of the fault in the eastern boundary. During the Dalianhe Formation period,the two early subsidence zones gradually merged into one zone, the north of the eastern boundary,with some small subsidence zones in the west and south of the fault depression, and the thickest part was still located in the descending plate of the eastern fault zone. During the Baoquanling Formation period,the two early (eastern?) subsidence zones were completely merged into one zone,and the subsidence zone in the western part of the fault depression was formed and enlarged,thus the east and west subsidence centers were formed.On the above,the pattern of prototype basin,the distribution,and migration process of the sedimentation centers in different periods are finally clarified.
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Evaluation of Thermal Conditions and Potential of Dry Hot Rock Resources in Hepu Basin, Guangxi
Kang Zhiqiang, Zhang Qizuan, Guan Yanwu, Feng Bo, Yuan Jinfu, Sun Minghang, Liu Demin, Wang Xinyu, Yang Zhiqiang, Lu Jipu, Zhang Qinjun, Feng Minhao
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 1151-1160.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200025
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Hot dry rock (HDR) is a kind of clean and renewable geothermal resource. The utilization of HDR is of great significance to the improvement of energy structure of Guangxi. The early studies show that the eastern and southern areas of Guangxi have HDR development potential. Based on Guangxi aeromagnetic survey data, the Curie point depth was calculated by using Parker-Oldenburg interface inversion method. The terrestrial heat flow values and temperatures at several different depths were also calculated. It is found that the calculation results are consistent with the actual measurement temperature data, indicating that there are formation conditions for the HDR resources in Xichang and Changle sags in Hepu basin. The reservoir and seal conditions of the HDR resources in Hepu basin were analyzed based on the basic geological survey and a large number of borehole data. Two hot-dry rock exploration target areas C1 and C2 located in Xichang and Changle sags were initially circled, with an area of 167.10 km2 and 72.90 km2, respectively. The HDR resources are 182.48×1015 J in C1, and are 77.59 ×1015 J in C2. Based on 20% recovery rate, the total amount of HDR resources in Hepu basin is 52.01×1015 J, which is equivalent to 177.48×104 t of standard coal. It accounts for 4.72 % of the total energy production of 3756.69×104 t standard coal in Guangxi in 2018. Based on the resource evaluation, it is recommended that further exploration should be given to the C1 target area,which is located in Xichang sag of Hepu basin.
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Characteristics of Ore-Forming Fluids and Geological Significance of Fanjiazhuang Gold Deposit in Muping-Rushan Metallogenic Belt, Jiaodong Peninsula
Wang Yongjun, Liu Yan, Huang Xin, Xu Chang, Shen Lijun, Zhang Yezhi, Zhang Zhaomin
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 1012-1028.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20180339
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The Muping-Rushan metallogenic belt is one of the three major gold metallogenic belts in the world-class Jiaodong gold province. However, its sources of ore-forming fluids is still hotly debated. The Fanjiazhuang deposit is a newly discovered gold deposit in this belt, and the study of its ore-forming fluid is relatively weak. Combined with the geological characteristics of the deposit, the fluid inclusions,hydrogen, and oxygen isotopic geochemistry were analyzed to understand the characteristics, origin, and evolution of the ore-forming fluids. The gold orebodies are mainly existed in Jurassic granites, in vein and lens shape, and are controlled obviously by fault structures. The hydrothermal mineralization of Fanjiazhuang deposit can be divided into 3 stages: Quartz-coarse pyrite (early metallogenic stage), quartz-Au polymetallic sulfide (major metallogenic stage), and quartz-carbonate (late metallogenic stage). The petrographic observation indicates that there are mainly two-phase aqueous and mono-phase liquid aqueous inclusions, with a few three-phase CO2-bearing inclusions. The micro-thermometry shows that the homogeneous temperature of the fluid inclusions in the early and major metallogenic stages is 167.2-297.5 ℃ and 168.4-253.6 ℃, salinity is 3.55%-22.65% and 2.58%-12.05%, and density is 0.77-1.06 g/cm3 and 0.84-1.02 g/cm3, respectively. All these features indicate the characteristics of middle-low temperature, middle-low salinity, and low density, a typical mesothermal gold deposit. The ore-forming pressure in the major metallogenic stage is estimated to be 45.8-68.7 MPa (average 52.8 MPa), and the corresponding ore-forming depth is 5.38-6.71 km (average 5.93 km), medium-shallow mineralization. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of the ore-forming fluids show the δDH2O-SMOW value from -96.9‰ to -89.0‰ and the δ18OH2O-SMOW value from -4.3‰ to 4.5‰ in the early stage. The δDH2O-SMOW and δ18OH2O-SMOW values in the major metallogenic stage change from -90.7‰ to -85.3‰ and from -5.4‰ to -0.2‰, respectively. All these above suggest that the ore-forming fluid of Fanjiazhuang gold deposit was derived from the mixture of magmatic water and meteoric water, and the proportion of the latter increased with the evolution of the ore-forming fluid. Based on the geological and fluid inclusion features, Fanjiazhuang deposit should be a mesothermal gold deposit.
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Time-Spectral Entropy Method for Picking Up Fracturing Microseismic Data
Tian Yanan, Wang Huanyu, Wang Xin, Huang Jiajun, Zhang Qiang
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 1219-1227.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190093
Abstract82)            Save
In the process of oil and gas field development, microseismic monitoring is an effective method to obtain the fracture distribution of hydraulic fracturing. Microseismic location imaging and crack interpretation need to use the location of effective microseismic signals; however,microseismic signals have the characteristics of low signal-to-noise ratio, and the traditional signal picking methods cannot effectively achieve the accurate picking at the first arrival time under the condition of low signal-to-noise ratio. In this paper, a new method based on time-spectral entropy for picking up the initial arrival point is proposed. This method first obtains the time-frequency spectrum of the signal containing noise through S transformation;then divides each sampling point in the spectrum into frames along the frequency direction, and calculates the approximate negative entropy value in each frame frequency band, with the smallest approximate negative entropy value as the negative entropy value of the point;finally, the approximate negative entropy values of all sampling points are compared in the time direction, and the time corresponding to the minimum value is the initial arrival position. In this study, a group of synthetic seismic data are used to verify the effect of the new method, and the results are compared with those obtained by the STA/LTA method. It is concluded that the two methods are both effective when the signal-to-noise ratio is -5 dB, but the time-spectral entropy method is better when the signal-to-noise ratio is -10 dB. Thus, the time-spectral entropy method is more suitable for the first arrival signal picking under low signal-to-noise ratio.
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Analysis of Influencing Factors on Heat Extraction Performance of Enhanced Geothermal System
Duan Yunxing, Yang Hao
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 1161-1172.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190041
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The Rehai geothermal field was taken as the geological background, the influence of well spacing, injection flow rate and temperature, and reservoir permeability on the heat extraction performance of the enhanced geothermal system were analyzed by using the orthogonal design method, and also the mutual influence between these factors. The results show that the injection flow rate is the key factor affecting the heat extraction performance and has a significant impact on the determination of injection temperature and well spacing. The larger the injection flow rate is, the shorter the stable heat extraction time and operating life are. The smaller the change of injection flow rate (increase 0.06 m3/s) is,the greater the impact will be on the heat extraction temperature (decrease 47 ℃); Increasing the injection temperature can improve the heat extraction temperature and operating life; however, the effect is limited. When the injection temperature is increased by 30 ℃, the heat recovery temperature is only increased by 10 ℃ after 50 a. The effects of well spacing, permeability, and production pressure on the heat extraction performance are similar and much smaller than the injection flow rate.
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Fracture Characteristics of Chang 6 Tight Oil Reservoir in Block Y in Ordos Basin
Kang Liming, Ren Zhanli, Zhang Lin, Wei Bin, Wang Wubing
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 979-990.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190131
Abstract76)            Save
Chang 6 is the main producing layer of Y block in Ordos basin, and cracks are developed. At present, the productivity of single well is low, water flooding and water channeling are serious, and some wells are seriously affected. In order to solve the fracture problem,the authors studied the development characteristics of natural fractures and artificial fractures, the influencing factors of artificial fractures, and the influencing factors of natural fractures on artificial fractures through the macroscopic and microcosmic observation of outcrops and cores in the field, the analysis of water injection indication curve, the analysis of pressure drop test data, the measurement of stress, and the analysis of the relationship between the pressure gradient of pump stop and the overlying stress gradient. Combined with the sedimentary environment, the influence of artificial fracture properties, artificial fracture form, and distribution law were studied. The results show that the macro-fractures of Chang 6 oil reservoir are mainly vertical regional structures, while the micro-fractures are mainly horizontal diagenetic fractures. The artificial fractures are mainly controlled by natural fractures, and the natural fractures are mainly controlled by the thickness and shale content of sand body. The thinner the sand body is, the easier the natural fracture is to form, the higher the shale content is, the easier the deformation structure is to form.
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Genesis of Zhaxikang Pb-Zn Polymetallic Deposit in Southern Tibet: Evidence from in Situ S Isotopes of Sulfides
Li Hongliang, Li Guangming, Ding Jun, Zhang Zhi, Qing Chengshi, Fu Jiangang, Ling Chen, Liu Yuqi
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (5): 1289-1303.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190287
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Zhaxikang Pb-Zn polymetallic deposit is the first large-scale Pb-Zn deposit discovered in the eastern Tethys Himalaya (TH), but its genesis is still controversial. Based on the detailed study of the geological characteristics, the authors analyzed the in situ S isotope of pyrite, galena, and sphalerite in the Pb-Zn ore with "concentric ring zone" or "hot water egg" structure in the mine chamber. The results of in situ S isotopic analysis show that the isotopic composition of Pb-Zn ore varies from 8.88‰ -11.83‰, with an average of 10.50‰, and the total sulfur isotopic composition (δ34S∑S) is about 10.07‰. Among them, the δ34SPy of seven pyrite measuring points is 10.29‰-11.14‰, with an average of 10.70‰;the δ34SSp of six sphalerite measuring points is 10.78‰-11.83‰, with an average of 11.49‰;and the δ34SGn of five galena measuring points is 8.88‰-9.18‰, with an average of 9.04‰. It shows a trend of δ34SSp > δ34SPy > δ34SGn, indicating a status of fractionation disequilibrium. Using S isotope thermometer between galena and sphalerite, the Pb-Zn mineralization temperature is constrained between 224 ℃ and 280 ℃ with an average of 259 ℃. Combined with the results of previous studies, it is concluded that the sulfur source of Zhaxikang Pb-Zn polymetallic deposit is mainly from the surrounding strata of Ridang Formation (J1r) with minor magma sulfur, and Zhaxikang Pb-Zn polymetallic deposit belongs to the filling metasomatic mesothermal deposit controlled by the stratigraphic, tectonic and magmatic hydrothermal processes.
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Tectonic Setting and Metallogenetic Conditions of Carboniferous Malkansu Giant Manganese Belt in West Kunlun Orogen
Zhang Lianchang, Zhang Banglu, Dong Zhiguo, Xie Yueqiao, Li Wenjun, Peng Zidong, Zhu Mingtian, Wang Changle
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (5): 1340-1357.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190294
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The large scale Carboniferous Malkansu manganese carbonate metallogenic belt in west Kunlun orogen is one of the most important prospecting achievement in China. The belt belongs to the back-arc extension basin of north Kunlun in Late Paleozoic. The basin was formed in the subduction of paleo Tethys Ocean beneath the Tarim plate. The Mn orebody is hosted by the marine sedimentary sequence of the Upper Carboniferous Kalaatehe Formation. The ore is composed of rhodochrosite (75%-95%), pyrolusite, alabandite, and pyrite. Based on petrographic and lithologic studies, it is suggested that the Upper Carboniferous Kalaratehe Formation represents sedimentary sequence of back-arc basin. Based on trace elements, C isotopes(δ13C=-23.3‰--10.0‰), it is suggested that the ore-forming condition of the Carboniferous Malkansu manganese ore body is normoxic . It is speculated that the dissimilatory reduction of manganese oxides in combination with organic matter resulted in the precipitation of manganese carbonates.
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Pumping Treatment Technology to Pump out Contaminated Groundwater: Extraction Efficiency and Extraction Endpoint
Gong Zhiqiang, Tian Xizhao, Liu Weijiang, Chen Jian, Kang Yang, Yang Guang, Dang Zhiwen
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 1139-1150.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190146
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In the process of recovery of polluted groundwater by pumping treatment technology,the extraction efficiency of pump decreases gradually over time,and it is difficult to determine the end point of pumping treatment. In order to improve the efficiency of extraction, reduce repair costs, repair time of the treatment, multiple optimization of pumping scheme is proposed. By using the analytic hierarchy process and expert scoring method, the index weight, quantitative characterization of the optimal time node, and the extraction endpoint are realized. Taking a chromium salt plant in Hebei as an example, the above method was applied to optimize the pumping scheme. The results showed that when the pumping efficiency was 20%-40%, the proportion of the pumping scheme (P3) was the largest. In the first time optimization, P3 should be re-arranged after 100 d pumping. The second optimization plan is to combine with other rehabilitation technologies after the first optimization, that is to continue pumping for 300 d after the first optimized pumping scheme was used; and then, to treat the remaining contaminated groundwater of the site with other rehabilitation technologies. After evaluation, the second optimization can effectively improve the pumping efficiency of the pumping well, shorten the repair time by 600 d, and increase the removal rate of hexavalent chromium in the aquifer by 8.31% in the same time.
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Correlation Imaging Method with Joint Multiple Gravity Gradiometry Data Based on Depth Weighting
Zheng Yujun, Hou Zhenlong, Gong Enpu, Zhang Yongli
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 1197-1210.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190123
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Aiming at the problem of low vertical resolution of correlation imaging in gravity exploration, the authors propose a correlation imaging method with joint multiple gravity gradiometry data based on depth weighting. Compared with gravity anomaly, the gravity gradiometry data have a higher signal-to-noise ratio, and contain more frequency information. Combined with multiple tensors of gravity gradiometry data, based on correlation imaging principle, a depth weighting function is introduced with the prior information. Using the theoretical model of the prism combination, the optimal gradiometry data group is determined, and the improvement of the vertical imaging results is verified by depth weighting function. Through dividing research area, the effect of depth weighting is further improved. The proposed method is also proved to be anti-noised. The method is applied to the measured gravity gradiometry data of Vinton Dome, and the results clearly show the location of the cap rock.
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Geochemical Characteristics and Genesis of Jinkengzi Gold Deposit in Wudu Area, Gansu Province
Fan Yuanyuan, Liu Yunhua, Yu Xiaofei, Zhao Qiang, Li Xiaoyan, Deng Nan, Ma Yuanhao
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (5): 1404-1417.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200026
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Jinkengzi gold deposit is located in the southern sub-belt of west Qinling metallogenic belt in the northern margin of Bikou block. In order to find out the genesis of Jinkengzi gold deposit, the field geological characteristics, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur isotopic composition, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the deposit were systematically studied. The results show that the ore bodies occur in the unconformity of phyllite and limestone and the fracture zone nearby, which is mainly controlled by the fracture structure; the δDH2O-VSMOW value of quartz in the different mineralization stages ranges from -81.4‰ to -67.5‰, and δ18OH2O-VSMOW ranges from 7.51‰ to 10.55‰, indicating that the early ore-forming fluid was originated mainly from the deep source magmatic water, and added with atmospheric precipitation in the late stage. The δ34S value of pyrite varies from -0.7‰ to 0.6‰, indicating that the ore-forming material is mainly derived from deep magma, with the addition of stratum material. The homogenization temperature of the fluid inclusions is 155.6-304.0 ℃, and the salinity is 0.53%-13.29%, indicating that the ore-forming fluid has the characteristics of medium temperature, medium-low salinity,and rich in CO2. Based on this comprehensive study, it is believed that the genetic type of Jinkengzi gold deposit is a mesothermal vein-type gold deposit formed in the Late Indosinian period.
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Zircon U-Pb Age, Geochemical Characteristics and Tectonic Settings of Volcanic Rocks in Jimunai Formation,West Junggar Basin
Ge Hailong, Zhang Yan, Wang Shengzhu, Yang Kaikai, Liu Xiaokang, Bian Weihua
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 1075-1089.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190126
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Jimunai Formation is located in Sawuer area of west Junggar basin, which is mainly composed of lava, pyroclastic rocks, and sedimentary rocks. Basaltic andesite from the upper section is (294.0±1.4) Ma by LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating. The result indicates that the lava underwent crystallization during Early Permian. Combined with local paleontological fossil assemblages, Jimunai Formation was formed in Late Carboniferous or Permian. The SiO2 content varies from 48.10% to 54.35%, belonging mainly to basalt and basaltic andesite. The total FeO content is between 7.38%-10.92%, MgO content is between 3.35%-5.16%, and Mg# index is between 41.02-55.05, mainly belonging to tholeiitic series. The rare earth element (REE) distribution pattern is right deviated, and rich in LREE ((La/Yb)N=4.00-6.04), with slight fractionation of HREE((Gd/Yb)N=1.68-2.26), δEu=0.91-1.07, δCe=0.91-1.06. The trace element spider diagram shows the enrichment of LILE (Rb, Ba, Sr, P), and moderate depletion of HFSE (Nb, Ta, Ti) except for the samples of JM2 and JM3. The ratios of (Th/Nb)N are mainly between 1.39 and 2.10, and Nb/La are between 0.39 and 0.74, indicating that the magma was partially contaminated by the lithospheric mantle and the crust. Based on the geochemical characteristics of high Zr/Y ratio, high trace element contents, the volcanic rocks of Jimunai Formation was derived from basaltic magma of asthenospheric mantle upwelling under post-collision tectonic background, and the magma was partially contaminated by lithospheric mantle and crust in the process of ascending.
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Evaluation of Geothermal Water Resources in Tangshan Area, Nanjing
Lü Yaxin, Luo Zujiang, Xu Chenghua
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1844-1853.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190138
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In order to accurately evaluate and plan the allowable exploitation quantity of geothermal water in Tangshan area, Nanjing, and to predict the changes of water level and temperature under the planned mining conditions, based on a full understanding of the hydrogeological information of geothermal water system, a hydrogeological conceptual model in Tangshan area was generalized,and a three-dimensional coupling mathematical model of unsteady seepage and heat transfer of groundwater was established in this area. The allowable exploitation quantity of geothermal water and the changes of water level and temperature were predicted under the condition that the drawdown is no more than 50 m. The results of simulation show that the allowable exploitation quantity of 14 existing geothermal water wells in Tangshan varies from 125.0 m3/d (R11) to 1 450.0 m3/d (R08). The total allowable exploitation quantity of geothermal water is 3.08×106m3/a. With the decrease of geothermal water level, its temperature rises 2-3℃ per year on average.
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Zircon U-Pb Age and Hf Isotope of Multiple-Stage Magmatism and Mineralization in Lianhuashan Region, Eastern Guangdong
Fan Feipeng, Xiao Huiliang, Chen Lezhu, Li Haili, Liu Jianxiong, Deng Zhonglin, Kang Congxuan, Lin Gengwei, Chen Kai
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (5): 1462-1490.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190308
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Lianhuashan region is located in the continental volcanic area of the southeast coast of China, which is an important prospecting area for tungsten-gold mineralization. The authors studied the zircon U-Pb age, granite geochemistry, zircon trace elements, and Hf isotope of the newly found Mesozoic intrusive rocks in Lianhuashan region in the southeast coastal areas of China, and identified three stages magmatism: Middle Jurassic quartz diorite porphyries ((168.0±2.2) Ma), early stage of Early Cretaceous biotite monzonites( (137.5±1.9)Ma), and late stage of Early Cretaceous quartz porphyries ((102.0±1.5) Ma and (98.7±1.8) Ma). The intrusive rocks belong to calc-alkaline, aluminous, strong-peraluminous magmatic rocks. The quartz porphyry and rhyolite porphyry are closely related to the mineralization. The 176Lu/177Hf values of all magmatic zircons are less than 0.002, the 176Hf/177Hf values are mostly less than 0.282 7. The zircon Hf isotope values of εHf(t) are mostly between -2.57 and 1.00, fLu-Hf values are in the range of -0.99-0.95, and their corresponding crustal model ages (TDM2) are mainly 1.00-0.81 Ga, which indicates that the source of diagenetic materials were derived from the partial melting of metamorphic mudstones and metamorphic sands of Neoproterozoic in the lower crust, and mixed with small amount of mantle material. The crystallization temperatures of zircons are mostly in the range of 650-750 ℃, which shows the characteristics of I-type granite. In combination with all these data, the magmatism and mineralization of Lianhuashan region are closely related to the tectonic transformation event. Although there is no high-precision metallogenic age to limit the time of metallogeny, the tungsten-gold mineralization time should be slightly later than the formation time of the quartz porphyry (ca. 102.0-98.7) according to the geological facts and this study results.
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Remote Sensing Geochemical Inversion Model by Using Extreme Learning Machine
Sun Liying, Yang Chen, Zhao Haishi, Chang Zhiyong
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1929-1938.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190209
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Geochemical exploration research involves a large amount of sampling work, which is extremely difficult in inaccessible terrain with harsh working environments. The authors propose a geochemical inversion model with remote sensing images by using extreme learning machine (ELM) to alleviate the difficulty of ore prospecting in the areas with insufficient regional data. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) method is used to select the remote sensing image features which are highly correlated with geochemistry data. In this model, the nonlinear relationship between the geochemical data and the remote sensing images is established using ELM for getting unknown geochemical anomalies, after which the ore prospecting work can be further promoted. In the experiment, 1:200 000 soil geochemical data of Cu element and the Landsat 8 OLI remote sensing images were used for the inversion analysis. The experimental results showed that the anomalous distribution obtained by the ELM-based inversion model had a good correspondence with known ore spots, which verified the effectiveness of the proposed model.
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Remediation of Cr(Ⅵ) Contaminated Groundwater by Stable and Loaded FeS
Hong Mei, Ren Xuan, Yang Huiping
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 1182-1188.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20180313
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Nanometer iron sulfide (Nano-FeS) has small particle size, large specific surface and high reactivity, but its application in groundwater remediation is limited by its easy agglomeration and oxidation. The dispersion and stability of Nano-FeS can be improved by modification. In this study, two kinds of modifiers, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and pillared bentonite were used to prepare stable modified CMC-FeS and loaded Alb-FeS. The properties of the two modified Nano-FeS were investigated in terms of dispersivity, anti-sedimentation, anti-oxidation, reactivity,and migration. The results show that the dispersivity of Alb-FeS and CMC-FeS were improved obviously compared to Nano-FeS. After three days, Nano-FeS completely precipitated and oxidized, CMC-FeS precipitated 3 cm and began to oxidize, while Alb-FeS precipitated 16 cm without oxidation. Under the same experimental conditions, the removal rate of Alb-FeS,Nano-FeS, and CMC-FeS for Cr(Ⅵ) is 85.16%, 84.90%, and 82.78% respectively, and their removal ability is Alb-FeS > Nano-FeS > CMC-FeS. The migration ability of the three kinds of FeS in the medium of coarse sand, medium sand, and fine sand is CMC-FeS> Alb-FeS> Nano-FeS. The maximum migration distance of CMC-FeS in the three media is 6.1, 6.4 and 3.4 times of that of Nano-FeS, while the mobility of Alb-FeS is not significantly improved compared with that of Nano-FeS. Considering the dispersivity, anti-sedimentation, stability, reactivity, and migration, CMC-FeS should be selected as the in-situ remediation material for Cr (VI) contaminated groundwater in practical application.
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Correction of Self-Gradient in Airborne Gravity Gradient Measurement Based on Multiple Linear Regression
Sun Yong, Yu Ping, Wang Xinyue, Huang Danian
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (3): 883-894.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190040
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The self-gradient effect produced by the vehicle is a serious disturbance to the ultra-high precision of the gravity gradiometer in an airborne gravity gradient survey. Due to the complexity of the vehicle structure, it is difficult to remove these interferences by using conventional modeling and forward calculation accurately. In this article, a multiple linear regression algorithm is used to deal with its own gradient effect, which corrects the interference from the gradient in a pure data-driven way,without making any assumptions or approximations to the vehicle model. Through regression diagnosis and model simulation, this correction method has high accuracy and predictive ability when the actual corner is within the ground calibration range.
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Formation and Evolution of Cretaceous Salt Structures in Lower Congo Basin
Li Yihe, Wang Dianju, Yu Fahao, Liu Zhiqiang
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1628-1638.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190082
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The Lower Congo basin contains a large amount of oil and gas resources, and the salt structure controls the hydrocarbon accumulation and distribution. The flow of salt rocks is irregular, therefore, it is difficult to analyze the formation and evolution of the salt structures. The former studies of the basin tectonic evolution by means of balanced sections method cannot accurately describe the formation and evolution of the salt structures in different ages. The flow of salt rock and the deformation of salt structures in the Lower Congo basin is not clear. A discrete element numerical simulation experiment was carried out, and the method of phased loading of sedimentary strata was adopted. The results are consistent with the geological conditions of the Lower Congo basin and the existing geological understanding of the basin. The results show that the formation process of the salt structure in the Lower Congo basin is mainly divided into three stages:The initial flow stage, the formation stage, and the stable stage. The main period of formation of the salt diapir structure is the Paleocene-Miocene. In the Paleocene-Oligocene period, the salt diapir structure began to form. During the Miocene period, the salt diapir structure was obvious in quantity and scale, and the Miocene was the most intensive period of salt tectonic activity. Compared with the previous research results, the main evolution stage of the salt structure is clarified based on the forward modeling of tectonic evolution process of the Lower Congo basin in this study.
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Geochemistry and Geochronology of Gabbro in Diyanmiao Ophiolite Belt, West Ujimqin Banner, Inner Mongolia
Xiong Guangqiang, Liu Min, Zhang Da, Wang Zhong
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (5): 1599-1614.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200011
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The Diyanmiao ophiolite in the west Ujimqin Banner, Inner Mongolia, which tectonically belongs to the Xilinhaote Late Paleozoic fold belt in the southeastern Central Asian orogenic belt, is located between the Erlianhot-Hegenshan ophiolite belt and the Jiaoqier-Xilinhaote ophiolite belt. This study focuses on the geochemical and geochronological characteristics of the gabbros from the Diyanmiao ophiolite. Whole-rock geochemical data show that the gabbros are high Al, lower K, lower Na, and tholeiitic in nature, with w(SiO2) of 45.49%~50.48%, w(Al2O3) of 13.31%~17.05%, w(K2O) of 0.01%~0.65%, w(Na2O) of 0.30%~4.15%, w(CaO) of 8.00%~19.54%, w(MgO) of 5.22%~10.92%, and w(P2O5) of 0.03%~0.23%. These rocks have low total REE contents and relatively enriched HREE. They also show enrichments in K, Ta, and Sr, and depletions in Nb, Zr, Hf, and Ti. La-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating results suggest that the gabbros were formed at Early Carboniferous ((345.3±2.3) Ma). In combination with previously works and regional geology, the authors propose that the gabbros in the Diyanmiao ophiolite were possibly formed by fluids metasomatism in an island arc setting during oceanic subduction, rather than crystallization and differentiation processes.
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LA-ICP-MS Trace Element Analysis of Sphalerite in Huaniushan Pb-Zn Deposit in Gansu Province and Its Geological Significance
Kang Kai, Du Zezhong, Yu Xiaofei, Li Yongsheng, Lü Xin, Sun Hairui, Du Yilun
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (5): 1418-1432.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190293
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Tianshan-Beishan Pb-Zn metallogenic belt is located in the intersection of Central Asian orogenic belt, Tarim Craton,and North China craton, which is one of the important metal resources in Northwest China. Huaniushan Pb-Zn deposit is a typical genetic deposit in Tianshan-Beishan area. The results of LA-ICP-MS analysis on the trace element composition of sphalerite show that the sphalerite was formed in the medium-high temperature environment and characterized by rich in Fe, Mn, Cd, In, Cu and poor in Ga,Ge,Ni. Among them, Mn, Fe, In, Cd, Cu are in the lattice of sphalerite in the form of isomorphism, whereas Ag and Pb may exist in the form of micro-inclusions. The trace element composition is similar to that of the magmatic hydrothermal deposits (Dulong, Huanggangliang, Meng'entaolegai,Chitudian);in addition, the mass fraction of Tl element and the values of Cd/Fe and Cd/Mn of sphalerite show magmatic hydrothermal properties, and the trace element discrimination figure also falls into magmatic hydrothermal region. The field investigation shows that there are no brecciated or reticular ore bodies at the bottom of the deposit, and the ore bodies are developed in the lithologic interfaces and interlayer fracture zones. Based on the geological characteristics of the deposit and the geochemistry of sphalerite, it is conclude that the genetic type of Huaniushan Pb-Zn deposit belongs to magmatic hydrothermal type formed at medium-high temperature.
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Application of Low Temperature TEM to Geological Exploration in Siziwangqi, Inner Mongolia
Bao Suxin, Dong Bingyuan, Pei Yifeng, Rong Liangliang, Qiu Longqing, Du Shangyu
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 1211-1218.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190102
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Transient electromagnetic method (TEM) is widely used in metal mine exploration. Based on the new receiving technology of SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device), the TEM has the advantages of low intrinsic noise (5~7 fT/√Hz) and large bandwidth (>200 kHz). As an important mineral reserve, Siziwangqi in Inner Mongolia is rich in mineral resources. The reliability of SQUID instead of induction coil was verified by comparing the experimental results of the anomalous rings obtained by superconducting receiving system and EM67 TEM instrument. The superconducting TEM method was applied to the northern area of Dajingpo, Siziwangqi, Inner Mongolia. The underground anomalous response information in shallow and deep layers (>2 000 m) was obtained to deduce a continuous low resistivity layer. Combined with the existing geological and geophysical data, the inversion results effectively reveal a north-east trending fault zone at 500 m in the shallow layer near the survey line, and then infer that there is a similar trending fault zone at 2 000 m in the deep layer.
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Geological Characteristics, Ore-Controlling Factors and Metallogenic Model of Muhu Manganese Deposit in West Kunlun, China
Dong Zhiguo, Zhang Lianchang, Dong Feiyu, Zhang Banglu, Xie Yueqiao, Zha Bin, Peng Zidong, Wang Changle
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (5): 1358-1372.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190295
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Muhu manganese deposit is located in the eastern end of Malkansu manganese ore belt in the west Kunlun orogenic belt, and research for this deposit is relatively weak. The ore-bearing strata of Muhu manganese deposit is the Upper Carboniferous Kalaatehe Formation, which can be divided into three members from the bottom to the top: Breccia limestone, calcareous greywacke, and carbonaceous marlstone. This typical transgressive sequence reflects the basin evolution from gradual faulting to stable sedimentation. The manganese orebodies occur in carbonaceous marlstone in the upper part of Kalaatehe Formation, and are mainly composed of fine-grained pure rhodochrosite. Based on the detailed mineralogical observation and the previous research advance, we suggest that the rhodochrosite in Muhu formed as a result of manganese oxides reduction by organic matter during burial diagenetic reaction. Three basic conditions are needed for this metallogenic mechanism: Abundant manganese source, redox stratified basin, and large burial of organic matter. In Muhu area, the main favorable ore-controlling factors include extensional tectonic background, strong submarine hydrothermal activities, transgressive event, and warm-humid paleoclimate. Based on the w(Ba)-w(P2O5) diagram and regional comparative analysis, we consider that the oxygen minimum zone expansion model can explain the genesis of Muhu manganese deposit.
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Permeability Prediction Based on Fractal Characteristics of Digital Rock
Yang Kun, Wang Fuyong, Zeng Fanchao, Zhao Jiuyu, Wang Congle
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 1003-1011.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190148
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Based on digital rock technology, the core CT scanning images are processed to obtain the core fractal parameters with fractal theory, and then the core permeability is predicted by constructing an equivalent fractal model of digital rock. In this study, firstly, the micro-CT scanning experiments of two sandstones were carried out,the core pore network models were extracted, and the pore throat structures were analyzed. Further, these two digital rocks and nine digital rocks from the Imperial College were processed to obtain the fractal parameters including fractal dimension, tortuosity, tortuosity dimension, and maximum pore radius by using MATLAB and Image J. Finally, based on the fractal permeability model, the permeability of cores was predicted. The results show that the pore throat radius distribution and pore coordination number distribution have influence on core permeability. The predicted permeability has a good correlation with the core permeability, and the correlation coefficient is greater than 0.97. Therefore, the core permeability can be effectively predicted based on digital rock technology by constructing an equivalent fractal model.
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Geological and Geochemical Features of Hushan Gold Deposit in Qixia, Shandong Province
Zhi Yunbao, Sun Hairui, Li Fenghua
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (5): 1552-1569.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200120
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Hushan gold deposit is the largest gold deposit in the southern part of Douya fault. In order to reveal its genesis, based on the geological work of the deposit, the study of the surrounding rock element geochemistry and fluid inclusions of the ore body was carried out. The results show that a large-scale of hydrothermal alteration is developed along the NE-trending faults in Hushan Au deposit,with obvious surface hydrothemal alteration, low Au mineralization, and poor alteration zoning. The borehole logs show that the hydrothermal alteration along the Au ore-bodies is symmetrically developed, displaying sericite-quartz alteration and pyrite-sericite-quartz alteration with the increase of distance from ore-body. The ore-bodies are mainly hosted in the alteraltion zone of pyrite-sericite-quartz alteration at the footwall of Douya fault. The mass-balance calculation shows that the major and trace elements behaved complicatedly during fluid-rock interaction. In the stage of sericite-quartz alteration, Linglong biotite granite experienced the loss of SiO2, Al2O3, FeO,MnO, Na2O, K2O, P2O5, and enrichment of REEs and MgO, CaO, Fe2O3, Au, Ag, Cu, Pb, V, Cr, Co and Ni; in the stage of pyrite-sericite-quartz alteration, FeO, Fe2O3, MnO, MgO, CaO, Au, Ag, Cu, V, Cr, Co, and Ni enterred in the sericite- quartz altered granite, while SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O, K2O and P2O5 moved out. The petrographic, microthermometric, and laser Raman microspectroscopic analyses on the fluid inclusions show that the fluid inclusions are mainly two-phrase aqueous fluid inclusions and CO2-bearing three phase inclusions, which are low salinity (5.33%-13.29%) and medium temperature (260 to 300 ℃) CO2-NaCl-H2O system. The ore fluid experienced fluid immiscibility during the ore-forming process. We believe that the deposit should belong to mesothermal altered rock type Au deposit controlled by Douya fault, which is similar to Jiaojia Au deposit in Jiaodong area.
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An Improved t0 Method for Determining Normal Depth of Refractive Surface
Li Qicheng, Guo Lei, He Shugeng, Min Ye
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (3): 905-910.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190054
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The existing t0 method to determine the normal depth of refractive surface has the following problems:firstly, the calculation process is complicated by using the idea of elementary mathematics and introducing the process function into the calculation process; secondly, there are two approximations in the solution, which increases the error of results; finally, when the normal depth curve is smoothed by using the existing method, the manual offset processing is not only time-consuming and laborious, but also causes manual errors. An improved method to determine the normal depth of refractive surface is therefore proposed. This method adopts advanced mathematics without process function, which makes the calculation more accurate through eliminating the approximation problem and reducing the calculation error; and the method smooths the normal depth curve by using the adjacent average method, which improves work efficiency, cuts labor cost, and realizes the whole process of computer processing. In comparison with the results by the existing one, the results by the improved method are more in accord with the changes of true refracted wave depth, therefore it can accurately determine the refractue surface tilt angle.
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Analysis of Uranium Mineralization Characteristics and Resource Potential in Lufilian Area, Central Africa
Sun Hongwei, Wang Jie, Ren Junping, Chen Wen, Tang Wenlong, Gu Alei, Zuo Libo, Xing Shi, Liu Zijiang
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1660-1674.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190058
Abstract62)      PDF(pc) (32520KB)(35)       Save
The Lufilian region of Central Africa is well known for its world class copper and cobalt deposits. It also hosts uranium resources. Uranium mineralization events include continental rift and basin diagenesis (876-823 Ma), early oceanic basin formation or continental collision (720-652 Ma), and Lufilian peak metamorphism (550-530 Ma). The main metallogenic model includes the extraction of uranium from the basement and the uranium-rich rocks of Katanga Super-Group, and enrichment of uranium in tectonically modified areas. The metamorphic basement or Bangweulu basement may provide uranium sources, the thermal fluids may serve as carrier, and fractures and dome structures may serve as channels and locations. The uranium-bearing ore bodies are mostly controlled by strata and structures, and limonitization and scapolitization of surrounding rocks are of direct significance for prospecting. The study area is found to be a high-potential uranium mineralization area. The areas where the strata of the Lower Roan Group are strongly influenced by faults and thrust nappe structures with relatively developed alterations are favorable for prospecting.
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Salt Resolving Slump of Sodic Saline Soil in the Lake Area of Western Jilin Province
Gao Jinhua, Xu Yang, Yan Xuelian, Wang Yan, Yang Jinliang
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 1104-1111.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20180197
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The salt resolving slump characteristics of sodic saline soil in the western part of Jilin Province are the main engineering problem of lining-free channels in the connectivity of rivers and lakes in the region. This study of salt resolving slump characteristics of sodic saline soil can provide the basis for problem solving. By taking the saline soil area passing through a planning channel in Qian’an as the research object, through the indoor dissolution test on undisturbed soil, the variation law of the salt resolving slump coefficient of sodic saline soil with the pressure load and the relationship between the salt resolving slump coefficient and the soil above 150 cm were obtained. The results are as follows: Under the pressure of 200 kPa, sodic soil produced the largest amount of slump deformation when it first encountered water, and the salt resolving slump coefficient was the largest; with the pressure increased, the salt resolving slump coefficient decreased. The soil with a depth of less than 30 cm and more than 120 cm was not collapsible, and the sodic saline soil with a depth of 30-120 cm was slightly collapsible. The soil with a depth of 30 cm or more acted as a salt accumulation layer, the high concentration of exchangeable sodium made the soil particles coalesced, the void ratio low, the soil moisture infiltration blocked, the seepage effect weak, and the salt not easy to dissolve and lose. The sodic saline soil with a depth of 30-120 cm had slight disintegration. The difference of physical and chemical properties between the upper and lower layers is one of the causes of the slump of saline soil, which is also the key area of channel regulation.
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Metallogenic Prognosis Model of Xiyi Large Hidden Lead-Zinc Deposit in Baoshan in Western Yunnan Province
Cheng Jialong, Cui Ziliang, Li Jun
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (5): 1450-1461.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190279
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Xiyi Pb-Zn deposit is located in the middle-north section of Baoshan block. The orebodies are mainly hosted in the Lower Carboniferous calcareous rocks of Xiangshan Formation. By using metallogenic prognosis theories and methods in the exploration area, Xiyi large scale hidden lead-zinc deposit was systematicly studied. The deposit genesis is of submarine exhalative sedimentary (SEDEX-type) with hydrothermal superimposion. The metallogenic geological bodies are secondary clastic and carbonate sedimentary rocks in the edge of Baoshan basin, which are superimposed by the Late Paleozoic (Devonian and Early Carboniferous) concealed magmatic rocks. The metallogenic structures are NE or concealed faults and fault fracture zone; the metallogenic structural planes are lithologic interfaces and siliceous-calcium interfaces. The characteristic indicator of mineralization is characterized by mineralization and alteration zoning, and the orebodies exend laterally in NE or NW direction. On these bases, the metallogenic prediction model of stratum+structure+siliceous-calcium interface+mineralization and alteration zoning is established. By using this prediction model, we deliniated the favorable metallogenic areas and suggested the exploration work in the peripheral area of Lutu and Guangyi, where Pb-Zn ore bodies were found.
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Numerical Optimization of Design Schemes for ConcreteCutoff Wall in Earth-Rock Cofferdam
Wang Changming, Lu Yun, Ma Donghe
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (3): 857-865.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190095
Abstract59)      PDF(pc) (7298KB)(74)       Save
It is necessary to select an optimal scheme of cutoff wall for earth-rock cofferdams, because the structure of the cutoff wall in the earth-rock cofferdam has an important influence on the seepage flow and the stability of cofferdam. In this paper, the optimal design of the thickness and depth of cutoff wall is studied by finite element method (FEM) taking as an example of a certain earth-rock cofferdam for construction, which is located in the Pearl River basin. The seepage fields based on 33 types of cutoff wall scheme which is composed of no concrete cutoff wall and 32 types of concrete cutoff wall about its thickness and its embedded depth within the weakly weathered rock were simulated. Then the control index, such as the seepage per unit width of cofferdam, the water head behind the cutoff wall, the hydraulic gradient at the bottom of cutoff wall and the cofferdam foot, were calculated and compared with the allowable value. Finally, the optimized anti-seepage scheme of cutoff wall was obtained. The conclusions made are as follows:1) Comparing with the thickness of cutoff wall, increasing the embedded depth within the rock can control more effectively the seepage per unit width of cofferdam and the height of the water head behind cutoff wall. 2) The change of hydraulic gradient at the bottom of cutoff wall is related to the depth of cutoff wall within the weakly weathered rock. Increasing the depth of cutoff wall from 0 to 8 m, the hydraulic gradient will decrease and will change from fast to slow. When the depth increases from 8 to 12 m, the hydraulic gradient will increase with the embedded depth and there is a significant increase after 10 m. 3) The cutoff wall with 0.8 m in thickness and 2 m in embedded depth within weakly weathered rock is regarded as the optimal anti-seepage scheme for this project after considering the project input and construction convenience. The results not only provide a basis for the design of the earth-rock cofferdam, but also provide a reference for the anti-seepage system of proposed earth-rock cofferdam projects under the same geological conditions.
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Syntectonic Skarn Characteristics and Mineralization Age of Associated Be-W-Sn Rare Metal Deposit in Cuonadong Dome, Southern Tibet, China
Fu Jiangang, Li Guangming, Wang Genhou, Zhang Linkui, Liang Wei, Zhang Xiaoqiong, Jiao Yanjie, Dong Suiliang
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (5): 1304-1322.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190285
Abstract58)      PDF(pc) (61585KB)(37)       Save
The newly discovered Cuonadong dome is located in the eastern part of the northern Himalayan gneiss domes (NHGD), which consists of three lithologic-tectonic units, i.e., core, detachment system,and cover rocks. Cuonadong super-large Be-W-Sn rare metals deposit is hosted by skarn and skarn marble in the middle of the dome. The skarn and/or skarnization marble are located in garnet-staurolite-bearing mica schist, and are closely related to the intensively deformed leucogranite and pegmatite, and some skarn minerals are in directional arrangement with strong shear characteristics (i.e. garnet, epidote and amphibole). The boundary between leucogranite and skarn is gradual or sharp, which suggests that both the skarn and the deformed leucogranite were resulted from the syntectonic magmatism.The Ar-Ar dating of biotite from the ore-hosting schist yields Ar-Ar plateau age of (16.6±0.3) Ma and inverse isochronal age of (16.7±0.3) Ma, which represent the age of D2 top-to north extension deformation, and also represent the activity time of the southern Tibetan detachment system (STDS) of Cuonadong dome. The Ar-Ar dating of muscovite from skarn in Cuonadong dome yields Ar-Ar plateau age of (16.9±0.2) Ma, which is consistent with the Ar-Ar plateau age of (16.6±0.3) Ma in schist, and represent the formation age of the syntectonic skarns, which is interpreted as the mineralization age of Cuonadong Be-W-Sn rare metals deposit. Therefore, we suggest that Cuonadong Be-W-Sn rare metals deposit was resulted from the activity of the STDS, and the syntectonic magma intruded in the host rocks along the structural passage, further replaced the marble, which, in turn, resulted in the formation of the Be-W-Sn-bearing skarn ore bodies.
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Late Paleozoic Tectonic Evolution of Beishan Orogenic Belt: Chronology and Geochemistry Constraints of Early Permian Syenogranitic Porphyry Dyke in Liuyuan Area, Gansu Province
Sun Hairui, Lü Zhicheng, Yu Xiaofei, Li Yongsheng, Du Zezhong, Lü Xin, Gong Fanying
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (5): 1433-1449.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200085
Abstract58)      PDF(pc) (22618KB)(43)       Save
Beishan orogenic belt is located in the middle part of Central Asia orogenic belt (CAOB), and it is crucial to discuss the accretionary evolution of the CAOB. Liuyuan area is in the southern part of Beishan orogenic belt, where granitoid rocks and different types of dykes are widely distributed. To study these rocks and dykes can provide us with more important clues about the reconstruction of the geological evolution of this area. The LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating of the syenogranitic porphyry dyke in northeast Liuyuan area yields the weighted 206Pb/238U ages of (288.5±1.4) Ma, the Early Permian. The geochemical results show that the contents of SiO2 and total alkali of the syenogranitic porphyry are high,while the contents of Fe, Mg, Ca, Al and P are low. In addition, the porphyry is characterized by rich in Rb, Th, U and Pb but poor in Ba, Nb, La, Ce, Sr and Ti, with obvious Eu negative anomaly. The value of Rb/Sr is high, the value of K/Rb is low, and the saturation temperature of zircon is lower (730-844 ℃, concentrating around 740 ℃). Based on the above geochemical results and the comprehensive discriminant analysis, we believe that the porphyry belongs to high-K calc-alkaline and high fractionated I-type granites. Also, the syenogranitic porphyry presents a narrow range of Zr/Hf (18.42 to 28.01, average 22.37) and Th/U values (3.82 to 7.99, average 5.34) respectively, which is similar to those of crust sourced rocks. The syenogranitic porphyry show positive εHf (t) values, varying from 2.94 to 9.66, with average of 5.72, and relatively young TDM2 ages, ranging from 955 to 611 Ma. Considering the occurrences of the coeval mafic igneous rocks in this region, we believe that the porphyry magma should be mainly derived from the partial melting of the crust-derived metamorphic igneous rocks with some contribution of mantle materials. The tectonic discriminant analysis shows that the Early Permian syenogranitic porphyry was formed in a subduction environment. Based on the previous studies on the regional tectonic deformation, basin sediment source, and the magma evolution from Permian to Triassic, it is concluded that the accretionary orogenic events in the southern part of Beishan orogenic belt lasted at least until the Early Permian, which provided important constraints on the reconstruction of the tectonic evolution of the Late Paleozoic Beishan orogenic belt.
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Characteristics of Thrust-Nappe Structure and Its Relationship with Mineralization in Xiuning-Shexian Integrated Exploration Area, Anhui Province
Weng Wangfei, Wang Deen, Hu Zhaoqi, Zhu Qiang, Wang Qinian, Wu Jiming, Tang Guoqiang, Zhang Pengfei
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (5): 1518-1538.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190310
Abstract58)      PDF(pc) (32049KB)(26)       Save
Based on the field geological survey and the comprehensive tectonic interpretation of magnetotelluric sounding electromagnetic array profile, a large-scale thrust-nappe structure is developed in the Late Jurassic in the integrated gold polymetallic ore exploration area in Xiuning-Shexian and its adjacent area, which consists of thrust fault, thrust sheet, original rock series, structural window,and associated traction fold. The thrust-nappe structure is developed in the southern edge of "Tunxi-Xiuning" Mesozoic continental sedimentary basin, which shows that the Neoproterozoic shallow metamorphosed volcano clastic rock series is thrust napped on the clastic rock of Hongqin Formation in Middle Jurassic. The thrust-nappe structure is composed of a series of branch thrust faults, which are characterized by the pre-spreading imbricate thrust. The front edge of the fault is steep and becomes gentle downward. The thrust-nappe structure is distributed in the northeast direction extending up to 40 km in the area, and the nappe area is more than 600 km2 in the integrated exploration area. According to the exposed position of the structural window and combined with drilling and geophysical exploration, the thrust displacement is 2.0-8.0 km. According to the time-space matching of thrust faults,the sedimentary strata,and magmatic activity, it is estimated that the formation time of the Late Jurassic thrust-nappe structure is 163.5-149.0 Ma. Based on the observation of the friction marks of the thrust faults and the analysis of the paleo-stress field, it is believed that the thrust-nappe structure was formed in the regional dynamic environment of the strong northward compression of the South China plate. The thrust-nappe structure is a pre metallogenic structure, its and the later extensional structures play an important role in the intrusion of magma and the circulation of ore-bearing hydrothermal fluid. The thrust-nappe structure controls the distribution and enrichment of gold, silver, lead-zinc, and other low-temperature elements in the integrated exploration area.
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40Ar-39Ar Age of Altered Potash Feldspar of Xiejiagou Gold Deposit in Jiaodong and Its Geological Significance
Du Zezhong, Cheng Zhizhong, Yao Xiaofeng, Yu Xiaofei, Sun Hairui, Bao Xinglong, Li Shaohua
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (5): 1570-1581.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190289
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Xiejiagou gold deposit is located between Jiaojia fault zone and Zhaoyuan-Pingdu fault zone in southwest Jiaodong. Based on the systematic observation of various alteration phenomena in the tunnels, we found that the wall rock alteration of the deposit includes mainly potash feldspathization, silicification, pyrite mineralization, and sericitization, followed by chloritization and carbonation, and the main hydrothermal effects at different stages were determined based on the superposition and interpenetration of alteration. From early to late, it is potash feldspathization, pyrite-sericite-quartz, and steep quartz sulfide veinlet;from the center to both sides,the alteration is steep quartz sulfide veinlet, pyrite-sericite-quartz,and potash feldspathization. The 40Ar-39Ar fine dating of altered potassium feldspar shows that the obtained plateau age is (112.79±0.62) Ma (MSWD=5.76), and the isochronous age is ((115.56±1.72) Ma (MSWD=4.59)). The two ages are almost the same, which indicates that the formation of Xiejiagou gold deposit is the same metallogenic thermal event as the gold mineralization of Jiaodong area. Combining with the regional magmatic evolution characteristics, after the formation of Guojialing rock mass in Jiaodong area, there was still a phase of magmatic activity that is closely related to the gold mineralization at (120±10) Ma.
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Zircon U-Pb Dating, Geochemistry and Their Geological Significance of Baijiazang Pluton in Eastern Section of Lajishan in Qinghai Province
Zhang Xinyuan, Li Wufu, Wang Chuntao, Liu Jiandong, Ouyang Guangwen
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1703-1719.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190113
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The intrusive rocks of Baijiazang is located in Minhe County, Qinghai Province, and the geotectonic position is located in the eastern section of Lajishan ophiolis melange belt. Through petrology, petrogeochemistry and isotopic chronology, the intrusive rocks of Baijiazang have been studied in order to determine their time of emplacement and to explore the tectonic environment. The results show that the intrusive rocks in Baijiazang are mainly composed of diorite and quartz diorite. Zircon U-Pb age obtained from diorite and quartz diorite is (472.5±1.9) Ma and (467.3±2.5) Ma, respectively, and they are consistent within the error range. Therefore, it can be judged that the emplacement age of Baijiazang rock is about 470 Ma, which is Middle Ordovician. The geochemical characteristics show that the SiO2 content of the rock mass is 55.67%-59.04%. The value of Na2O/K2O was 3.35-6.14, and w (Na2O) was higher than of w (K2O), showing the characteristics of rich in sodium and poor in potassium. The main body of A/CNK value is between 0.76 and 1.01, belonging to the quasi-aluminum calc-alkaline series rocks. The rare earth partition curve presented a slightly right-leaning curve, where light rare earth elements were relatively weakly enriched ((La/Yb)N=2.51-4.57), and light and heavy rare earth elements were weakly fractionated internally. The rocks were obviously enriched with large ion lipophilic elements Rb, Ba and active incompatible elements Th and U, while relatively deficient with high-field strength elements Nb, Ta, P, Ti, etc. Environmental discrimination shows that it has the characteristics of island-arc granite. The above characteristics indicate that the intrusive rocks in Baijiazang were produced at the subduction stage of the Lajishan ocean.
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Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Material Activate Persulfate to Degrade 4-Chlorophenol
Liu Na, Zhang Pengpeng, Ding Longzhen, Chen Hong, Jiao Xinqian
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 1173-1181.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190060
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This thesis focuses on the activation of persulfate to degrade 4-chlorophenol by self-developed nitrogen-doped carbon materials. Firstly, three nitrogen doped carbon materials (NCs) (NC-700, NC-800, and NC-900) were synthesized via sol-gel method by using waste industrial syrup as carbon source and ammonia as nitrogen source, which were characterized by the methods of scanning electron microscope(SEM), X-ray diffraction(XRD), Raman spectra(Raman), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS). Then, the effects of NC-800 dosage, persulfate (PDS) dosage,and initial pH on the removal rate of 4-chlorophenol were investigated, and electron spin resonance (ESR) and free radical quenching experiments were carried out. It showed that all the three NCs could effectively activate persulfate (PDS) to degrade 4-chlorophenol; and NC-800 showed the best ctivation performance; the removal efficiency of 50 mg/L 4-chlorophenol reached 99.10 % in 30 min, when the dosage of NC-800 and PDS were 100 mg/L and 5 mmol/L, respectively; the initial pH had no effects on the removal efficiency of 4-chlorophenol; NC-800 activated persulfate degradation of 4-chlorophenol,which followed the non-radical pathway, and the singlet oxygen was the active substance for degrading of 4-chlorophenol. The cycling experiments showed that NC-800 has certain stability, and the removal efficiency could still reach to 73.80 % after four cycles.
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Analysis of Eco-Environmental Problems in Songnen Low Plain Based on High-Score Image——A Case Study of Zhaoyuan County of Heilongjiang Province
Ding Yuxue, Mao Long, Zhou Xiangbin, Chu Weiyu
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 1240-1248.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190087
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This research is based on high resolution satellite image data, remote sensing,and GIS technology. The latest data of natural resources and eco-geological environment factors in Zhaoyuan County of Heilongjiang Province were obtained as follows:cultivated land area 2 541.75 km2, forest land area 161.88 km2, grassland area 349.00 km2, river area 128.05 km2, lake area 215.80 km2, swamp area 109.17 km2, other waters area 84.65 km2, building used land area 191.25 km2, unused land area 329.94 km2,wetland area 1 334.54 km2, and desertification area 775.47 km2. A comprehensive study was carried out through calculating coverage rate, per capita occupancy,and landscape index (patch density, area-weighted mean patch fractal dimension, fractal dimension, Shannon diversity index, and Shannon evenness index). Based on the study result,it is concluded that wetland resources, especially natural wetlands, are more disturbed by human activities,while desertified land is less disturbed by human activities. Through multi-stage remote sensing dynamic monitoring and field verification for the selected Laoshan Village and other typical areas,some ecological and environmental problems are recognized, such as wetland degradation and land desertification in Songnen low plain area.
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Characteristics of Gold-Bearing Minerals and Compositions of In-Situ Sulfur of Laojinchang Gold Deposit in Beishan, Gansu Province and Its Ore-Forming Implications
Huang Shiting, Yu Xiaofei, Lü Zhicheng, Liu Jiajun, Li Yongsheng, Du Zezhong, Lü Xin, Sun Hairui, Du Yilun
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (5): 1387-1403.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190301
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Laojinchang gold deposit is one of the most representative medium-sized magmatic hydrothermal gold deposits formed at medium-low temperature in the southern Beishan metallogenic belt. Based on the cross cutting relationships of the different auriferous veins, mineral paragenesis, ore texture and structure, its mineralization stages can be divided into quartz-pyrite stage(Ⅰ), quartz-arsenian pyrite-arsenopyrite stage(Ⅱ), quartz-pyrite-polysulfide stage(Ⅲ), and quartz-calcite stage(Ⅳ). In this paper, the element concentration and composition in the gold-bearing minerals of different ore-forming stages were analyzed by using the electron microprobe analyzer (EMPA). The pyrite of stage I is primarily coarse-grained (0.50-1.50 mm) euhedral cube, with low content of As, Au, and a small amount of fine-grained anhedral asenopyrite. The arsenian pyrites of stage II are surrounded by a large number of arsenopyrites, and the arsenian pyrites are dominantly cubic and pentagonal dodecahedron, rich in As and Au with particle size of 0.30-1.00 mm. Stage II is the most intensive period of mineralization, and the main formation period of arsenopyrites. The arsenopyrites in this stage are primarily appeared as rhombic-columnar, columnar, and radiate-columnar aggregates, rich in S but depleted of As. The pyrites in stage Ⅲ commonly occur as veins of pyrite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite mineral paragenesis, appeared as long strip, with high content of S, Cu, Zn, Au but low content of Fe and As. The mineralization in stage Ⅳ is relatively weak with a small amount of fine-grained anhedral pyrites and asenopyrites. The δ34SV-CDT values of pyrite or and asenopyrite range from -3.8‰ to -2.9‰ (average -3.3‰) in stage Ⅰ, the δ34SV-CDT values of pyrite and asenopyrite range from -4.7‰ to 2.6‰ (average -3.3‰) in stage Ⅱ, and the δ34SV-CDT values of pyrite and sphalerite range from -1.9‰ to 1.0‰ (average 0.1‰) in stage Ⅲ; which suggests a mantle-derived magmatic sulfur provenance, and contaminated by sedimentary sulfur at the late stage, as indicated by in-situ sulfur isotope compositions. Based on the previous study, it is proposed that the ore-forming fluid was evolved from S-rich and As-poor fluids to As-rich and S-poor fluids during the mineralization. In stage Ⅰ, the ore-forming system was in neutral and stable environment with abundant sulfur. In the main stage(II), the ore forming fluid was rich in As, poor in S,and high in oxygen fugacity, and the As-rich fluids was injected into hydrothermal system due to the leaching-infiltration of meteoric water, which led to the formation of the Au-As complexes, and the possible precipitation and accumulation in appropriate place. The ore forming system was characterized by variety of metallogenic elements, rich in S, poor in As, and weak reduction in stage Ⅲ, and Au might enter the pyrite lattice in the form of [Au(HS)2]- or [AuS]- complexes.
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Field Test on Influencing Mechanism of Silty Soil and Silty Clay on Tip Resistance of Static Pressure Pile
Zhang Mingyi, Liu Xueying, Wang Yonghong, Bai Xiaoyu, Sang Songkui
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1804-1813.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190232
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In order to investigate the variation of pile end resistance with penetration depth in silt and silty clay, a spoke pressure sensor was installed at the pile end of the test pile P1, and a fiber grating sensor was installed at the test pile P1 and P2 200 mm away from the pile end. Two different test techniques were used to monitor the pile end resistance during the on-site penetration of two closed-end prestressed high-strength concrete pipe piles. The test results show that the resistance of the pile end is closely related to the change of the soil layer. The harder the soil layer is, the greater the resistance of the pile end is. When the pile end enters the silt layer from the silty clay layer, the pile end resistance increases significantly. The pile end resistance in the silt reaches twice of that of the silty clay layer. During the whole penetration process, due to the difference of soil layers at different locations, there is a certain difference between the pile end resistance of P1 and P2. The position difference of the same soil layer has a great influence on the pile end resistance. Below the ground 1.50 m, the difference of pile end resistance between P1 and P2 reached 89.29 kN; While below the ground 3.50-4.50 m, the difference between the pile end resistances of the two piles is small.
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Genesis of M9 Ore Body of Basihu Pb-Zn Deposit in Qinghai Province: Constraints of Fluid Inclusions and H-O-S Isotopic Evidences
Sun Yonggang, Li Bile, Sun Fengyue, Dong Junlin, Qian Ye, Yao Zhen
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (5): 1373-1386.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190276
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Basihu Pb-Zn deposit is located in Tuotuohe area of Qinghai Province in the northern part of Sanjiang polymetallic metallogenic belt. The M9 Pb-Zn ore body is hosted by the cataclastic alterated limestone and micrite of the Lower Permian Jiushidaoban Formation, and the main ore-controlling structure is the NWW trending fault that cuts through the formation. The mineralization process can be divided into three stages: Quartz-pyrite stage (Ⅰ), quartz-barite-polymetallic sulfide stage (Ⅱ), and carbonate-quartz stage (Ⅲ). The ore-forming fluid inclusions are dominated by gas-liquid two-phase fluid inclusions. The homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions in stage I range from 315.1 to 365.9 ℃, with salinities (w (NaCl)) of 8.81%-11.46%. In stage Ⅱ, the homogenization temperatures range from 231.1 to 294.3 ℃, with salinities of 4.80%-10.49%. And in stage Ⅲ, the homogenization temperatures range from 155.1 to 233.7 ℃, with salinities of 2.41%-6.88%, indicating a typical medium temperature and low salinity fluid. The temperature and salinity decreased gradually from early to late mineralization. The H-O isotope data show that the mineralizing fluid was a mixture of magmatic water and meteoric water, mainly magmatic water in the early stage and mixed with meteoric water in the later stage. The S isotope data indicate that the ore-forming material source was related to the deep potassium magmatic activity in Cenozoic. The genetic type of M9 ore body in Basihu Pb-Zn deposit was a mesothermal hydrothermal vein type, and was formed in an extensional environment related to the late stage of the intracontinental orogenesis resulting from the India-Asia collision.
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Stability Evaluation of Deep Foundation Pit of Metro Based on Grey Correlation Analysis with Combined Weights
Lang Qiuling, Wang Wei, Gao Chengliang
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1823-1832.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190145
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Because of many risk factors, the stability of deep foundation pit of metro is highly demanded during excavation. Especially in the water-rich gravel stratum and near the existing metro line, it is extremely necessary to make an accurate evaluation of the stability of foundation pit in excavation. The authors took Fengxi station deep foundation pit project of Chengdu Metro Line 17 as the research object, by using the combined weight obtained by using the subjective weight determined by AHP and the objective weight determined by entropy method with the grey correlation method, and objectively evaluated the stability of foundation pit in the excavation through the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of the monitoring data of the sections around the foundation pit. The evaluation results show that the importance of foundation pit stability to each monitoring project from large to small is horizontal displacement of pile on the top (0.29), ground settlement (0.24), building settlement (0.19) settlement of pile on the top (0.18),and internal support axial force (0.10). The comprehensive evaluation result of the foundation pit stability is very good. The evaluation model can provide reference for the construction of deep foundation pit and risk control in Chengdu area.
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Discussion on Sources of Metallogenic Materials in the 26°S Hydrothermal Field, Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Fan Lei, Wang Guozhi, Shi Xuefa, Astrid Holzheid, Basem A. Zoheir
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1648-1659.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190245
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A large amount of metal sulfide debris, sedimentary mud, pillow basalt, inactive and active black smoker was found in the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 26°S segment (SMAR 26°S). The melt inclusions, sulfur isotopic data and copper isotopic data of collected samples, including basalt, chimney debris and massive sulfide, were well studied. The results show that the polymetallic sulfides, such as chalcopyrite, pyrite and magnetite, adhere to the bubble wall of melt inclusions in the phenocrysts of basalts, indicating that the ore-forming metallic elements and sulfur derived from the volatile-rich melt. These ore-forming elements may enter into the volatile phase and precipitate during the magma degassing. The role of sulfur in SMAR 26°S was examined by utilizing sulfur isotope. Isotope composition for pyrites in chimney debris and massive sulfides ranges from 3.0‰-3.9‰ in δ34SV-CDT, which points to a mixing process between sulfur from magmatic fluid and the sulfur from seawater sulfate. The sulfur isotopes in SMAR 26°SV-CDT show the same variations as those of other hydrothermal vent systems on the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, but all samples are relatively depleted in 34S relative to other hydrothermal fields, reflecting the greater relative importance of the magmatic fluid. The monomineral Cu isotopic compositions of chalcopyrite are positive with the range of 0.171‰-0.477‰, indicating that the δ65Cu values obtained for chalcopyrite are close to those for source rock (i.e. 0 for basalts), and characterized by slight 65Cu-rich and low fractionation. The characteristics of the hydrothermal fluid and the source of metal are recorded by the combination data of the sulfur isotope with copper isotope and the melt inclusions. All the evidence shows the lower contribution of seawater sulfate and indicates that the ore-forming fluid and metallic elements derive mainly from magmatic-hydrothermal fluid.
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Geochemical Characteristics, LA-ICP-MS Zircon U-Pb Dating and Geological Significance of South Liaoning Pluton: A Case Study of Triassic Pluton in Gaizhou Wanfu-Xiuyan Longtan Area
Peng Youbo, Liu Wenbin, Zhao Jun, Cui Yusong, Yang Chenghui, Zhao Chen, Wen Cong
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1737-1751.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200013
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Gaizhou Wanfu-Xiuyan Longtan area is located in the north margin of the North China block, which is on the Mesozoic magmatic arc belt of southeast Liaoning. It is mainly composed of two plutonic rocks. The Heilagou plutonic rocks are fine-grained biotite monzogranite, and the Qianbaogou plutonic rocks are porphyritic biotite monzogranite. The Late Triassic plutonic rocks belong to the calc-alkaline, per aluminous series. The plutonic rocks contain high content of K,Rb,and Sr,low content of Ta,Yb, and Y. The REE distribution pattern is obvious right dipping, with LREE enrichment, HREE depletion, and weak negative Eu anomaly. According to LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating, the fine-grained biotite monzogranite and porphyritic biotite monzogranite were formed in the Late Triassic ((219.8±0.7) Ma and (220.9±2.1) Ma). Based on the analyses of petrology, petro-chemistry, chronology, and tectonic environment, combined with the study of the tectonic evolution in the adjacent area, it is considered that the intrusive rocks are syncollisional S type granites, which were produced by the thickening and remelting of the silicon aluminum layer in the crust during the collision between the Yangtze plate and the North China craton.
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Geochemistry, Geochronology and Genesis of Granites in Shihuoshan Pyrite Polymetallic Ore Area, South Jiangxi Province
He Genwen, Lu Siming, Peng Linlin, Yu Changqi, Li Wei, Liu Cuihui
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (5): 1491-1504.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190284
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Shihoushan ore deposit is the largest skarn-type pyrite polymetallic ore deposit in Jiangxi Province,which is associated with tungsten, copper and gold ore-forming elements, and related to the nearby Chashanjing composite granites. The granites mainly include two periods: Chashanjing porphyritic biotite monzonitic granite and Lianhu fine monzonitic granite. In order to study the emplacement age, petrogenesis,and relationship with mineralization, the U-Pb zircon dating, petrography,and rock geochemistry were tested and analyzed. The results show that the intrusive rocks are characterized by high silicon, potassium, and aluminum, belonging to the high-K calc-alkaline series granites; the fractionation of rare earth elements is obvious in right-wing type, with weak Eu negative anomaly, enrichment of Cs, Rb, Th, U and Pb, depletion of Ba, Nb, Sr and Ti, the feature of low Ba-Sr crust derived granites. The U-Pb zircon dating by LA-ICP-MS yields the concordant age of (162.4 ±0.6) Ma (MSWD=1.8), and the weighted average age of (162.4 ±1.4) Ma (MSWD=1.4), these two are highly consistent within the error range, which implies that the Chashanjing composite granite was emplaced in Middle Jurassic of Early Yanshanianan. Considering the mineral assemblage, major and trace elements and high fractionation characteristics, it is considered that the rock mass belongs to S-type granite. In comparison with ordinary Chinese granites, Chashanjing granites are obviously rich in metallogenic elements such as W, Mo, Bi, and Pb, which might have provided heat, fluid, and material for the mineralization.
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Geochemical Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Selenium in Soil from Dandong Area, Liaoning Province
Li Yuchao, Wang Chengyu, Yu Chengguang
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1766-1775.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190204
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The content, distribution regular and enrichment mechanism of Se in the soil of Dandong area (Liaoning Province) were discussed based on the survey data of the surface soil, soil profiles,and pedogenic rocks. The results show that the content of Se in the surface soil in the study area ranges from 0.028×10-6 to 0.910×10-6, which is higher than the national Se average in soil. The spatial distribution of Se is affected by the strata of Liaohe Group, showing the characteristics of surficial enrichment. The Se enrichment mechanism in the soil is the following:Se derived from the metamorphic rocks of Gaixian Formation and Gaojiayu Formation, gathered and affected by the process of soil formation, in which the clay particles or iron oxides aggregated in the brown loam layer and combined with selenium; The environmental geochemistry played a certain role in the enrichment of selenium in the surface soil, and the S, N and Se in soil adsorbed and fixed with each other, which was conducive to Se enrichment in soil;In addition, Al and Fe oxides had a strong adsorption capacity to Se; A significant negative correlation occurs between Se and pH in the soil in the study area, implying the low pH value in the soil accompanied by high Se content. In general, the content of Se in soil in the study area shows obviously positive relationship with organic matter, Fe-Al oxides, S and N, which is consistent with the research results of Se in Guangzhou, Fengcheng,and Enshi.
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Pyrite Trace Element Composition and S-Pb Isotope Characters of the Dabaiyang Gold Deposit, Hebei Province
Tao Lixin, Zhen Shimin, Bai Haijun, Wang Jiang, Wang Dazhao, Zha Zhongjian
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (5): 1582-1598.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200092
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The Dabaiyang gold deposit is located in the Zhangjiakou district of the north margin of the North China craton. It is a middle-scale gold deposit. The ore bodies are hosted in the Huajiaying Formation and Jiangouhe Formation of the Archean Sanggan Group, and controlled by faults and folds with general strikes of north-northwest. The ore types are gold-bearing quartz vein type and altered rock type. The main minerals are magnetite, hematite, pyrite, galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, bornite, native silver, native gold, electrum,and tellurides. Four mineralization stages are recognized, i.e. quartz-k-feldspar stage, quartz-pyrite stage, quartz-sulfides stage, and quartz-carbonate-sulfate stage. The δ34SV-CDT values of sulfide range from -16.2‰ to -10.5‰, which are resulted from the highly oxidizing ore-forming fluids. The 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb,and 208Pb/204Pb values are 16.762-17.293, 15.350-15.463,and 36.777-37.328, respectively. The stable isotope compositions indicate that the ore metals were mostly derived from magmatic fluid. The contents of trace elements in pyrite are low, and mostly in the pyrite lattice. The low Co and Ni concentrations suggest that the pyrite precipitated from magmatic hydrothermal fluid. The amphibolite of the Sanggan Group provides a part of materials for ore-forming fluids, an important source bed. The Dabaiyang gold deposit is a magma-related hydrothermal deposit, which experienced initial gold mineralization in the Devonian and overprinting during the Jurassic-Cretaceous, which also resulted in the large amounts of gold deposits in the Zhangjiakou Xuanhua district.
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New Discovery of Ostracods of Upper Permian Linxi Formation in Central Da Hinggan Mountains and Its Significance
Zheng Yuejuan, Zhang Jian, Zhang Haihua, Zhang Dejun, Bian Xiongfei, Chen Shuwang, Su Fei, Huang Xin, Song Shaojun
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1776-1786.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190086
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The Late Permian to Middle Triassic is an important tectonic evolution period in the eastern segment of the Central Asia orogenic belt, which is related to the final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean and the sharp changes of the sedimentary environment. The well exposed Upper Permian Linxi Formation recorded the evolution history of the Da Hinggan Mountains. The fossils, including sporopollen, conchostracan, bivalves, and megaplants, are found in the Upper Permian Linxi Formation in the southern Da Hinggan Mountains, however only bivalves and a few megaplants are found in the central Da Hinggan Mountains. A total of nine genera ostracods Kemeroviana,Volganella,Iniella,Qitaina,Darwinuloides,Palaeocypridopsis,Tomiella,Darwinula and Urumqiella are found for the first time in the central Da Hinggan Mountains. The paleo-zoogeography of the ostracods assemblage is closely related to those Late Permian ostracods assemblages, which are widely distributed in Russian platform. The evidences of the fossil assemblages and their preservation suggest that Linxi Formation was deposited in a continental lacustrine environment.
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Petrogenesis and Metallogenic Implication of Ore-Bearing Rock Mass of Copper Polymetallic Ore Occurrence in Duorenze-Sangaka Area, Angren County, Tibet
Zhao Yayun, Liu Xiaofeng, Liu Yuanchao, Ci Qiong, Zheng Changyun, Yang Chunsi, Li Li, Fu Hailong
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (5): 1323-1339.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190280
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The magmatic rocks in Gangdise metallogenic belt are the products of collision orogeny between Indian and Eurasian plates, and are of great significance to the study of collision orogeny and mineralization. Duorenze-Sangaka area is located in the south-central part of Gangdise volcano-magmatic arc, where ore-bearing gray white medium- to fine-grained biotite granodiorite is developed. The study of petro-geochemistry, Sr-Nd isotope, and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating of the biotite granodiorite show that its emplacement age is (49.0±0.7) Ma, in Eocene period. The biotite granodiorites are featured by high silicon (w(SiO2)=67.13%), potassium (w(K2O)=3.72%), alkali-rich (w(K2O+Na2O) =7.48%), and low MgO (1.34%, less than 3%), which belong to high potassium calc-alkaline and highly differentiated I-type granite. The Eu negative anomaly (δEu=0.70) and Sr depletion suggest plagioclase crystallization during magmatic evolution. These samples are rich in Th, U, K, Nd, Zr, Hf, and poor in Nb, Ta, Sr, Ti, P. Their whole-rock Sr-Nd isotopes ((87Sr/86Sr)i=0.705 280-0.705 530, εNd(t)=-2.2-1.6), trace elements, and element ratios reveal that they were derived from mixed crust-mantle sources. The magmatic-hydrothermal mineralization was likely caused by partial melting of lower crust, which was triggered by asthenospheric mantle upwelling through the plate break-out window during the plate fragmental subduction-post-collision of Indian and Eurasian plates. The comprehensive study shows that the porphyry-hydrothermal vein-type copper polymetallic mineralization in Duorenze-Sangaka area was resulted from the eruption of Early Eocene magmatism, which is an important part of the Cu-Au-Mo-Fe-Pb-Zn metallogenic system (52-47 Ma) related to crust-mantle granitic magmatism in Gangdise metallogenic belt.
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Hydrological Properties of Calcareous Sands and Its Influence on Formation of Underground Freshwater Lenson Islands
Sheng Chong, Xu Hehua, Zhang Yunfan, Zhang Wentao, Ren Ziqiang
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 1127-1138.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20180331
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The hydrological properties of calcareous sand in South China Sea are very important for the study of the formation of underground freshwater lens on islands. The permeability, specific water capacity,and specific yield of calcareous sands were studied by laboratory test first; and combined with the two-dimensional numerical model, their influence on the formation of freshwater lens of islands was analyzed. The result shows that the calcareous sand in South China Sea is poorly gradated and unevenly distributed, and the permeability coefficient is usually between 0.023 and 110 m/d, greatly changed in the study area. The porosity and specific yield are mainly between 0.40-0.55 and 0.012-0.310, respectively, which reflects that the calcareous sand has the characteristics of good water capacity but poor water supply compared with the continental sand with the same particle size range. The influence of hydrological properties of calcareous sand on the formation of freshwater lens is mainly reflected in the velocity, thickness, resource reserve,and formation time. Among them, the better the permeability of calcareous sand is, the faster the groundwater flow rate is, which strengthens the mixing effect between brackish and fresh water, resulting in a thinner freshwater lens and less reserves. Specific yield mainly affects the resources and reserves of freshwater lens in calcareous sand, but has little influence on the thickness and shape of freshwater lens.
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U-Pb Geochronology, Geochemistry and Geological Significance of Early Cretaceous Monzonitic in Wangjiabaozi Area of Xiuyan, Liaodong Peninsula
Dong Yang, Liu Su, Zhang Sijia
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1720-1736.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190174
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According to the U-Pb geochronology and geochemical characteristics of the monzonitic granite of Longtangou pluton and Luoquangou pluton in Wangjiabaozi area of Xiuyan, Liaodong Peninsula in the middle of Jiao-Liao-Ji orogenic active zone, we carried out a research. The results show that the emplacement ages of Longtangou pluton and Luoquangou pluton are (122.37±0.30) Ma and (124.37±0.91) Ma respectively, both in Early Cretaceous. According to the mass fraction of high SiO2, low Mg, Co, Cr, and Ni, enrichment of LREE and LILE, and loss of HFSE,Longtangou and Luoquangou plutons are the products of crustal material melting. According to the mass fraction of high Al2O3 and K2O, low Na2O, MnO, and CaO, high Sr, low Y and Yb, enrichment of LILE and LREE, negative anomalies of Eu, and depletion of HREE, the monzonitic granite possesses the properties of adakite and high potassium calc-alkaline type I granite. The magma of Longtangou pluton was resulted from the partial melting of the base rock at the bottom of the thickened continental crust caused by the subduction of the oceanic crust, while the magma of Luoquangou pluton was the result of the upwelling of mantle material caused by the subduction of the oceanic crust, which led to the partially melting of the lower basalt and mixing with mantle peridotite. The research shows that both Longtangou and Luoquangou plutons are the products of collision environment caused by the subduction of the ancient Pacific plate at the age of 124-122 Ma. The transition from tectonic extrusion to tensile environment should be completed between 122-110 Ma. The lithospheric thinning and destruction began with the transformation.
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Resource Assessment of Qian Ⅴ Uranium Deposite in Qianjiadian Uranium Orefield
Lei Angui, Chen Zhenyan, Wei Da, Yang Songlin
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1675-1684.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190226
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In order to establish the resource evaluation system of Qianjiadian uranium Orefield, and realize the quantitative assessment of the resource of QianⅤ uranium deposit, the resource abundance model is systematically constructed by using 11 ore bed units of the Qian Ⅱ and Qian Ⅳ as model units. It is considered that the main elements controlling the amount of resources are uranium source, stracture, interlayer oxidation, reducing medium, sedimentary reservoir and sedimentary structure. Through the establishment of abundance model of the calibration units, the analogy parameters of the assessment area, the favorable mining area are delineated. The amount of Qian Ⅴ deposit resources is calculated. The arthors consider that QianⅤ uranium deposit has the potential to form a large-scale uranium deposit.
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Analysis of Tectonic Mechanism of Songyuan M5.1 Earthquake on May 18, 2019
Ruan Qingfeng, Liu Cai, Liu Junqing, Zhang Yu, Zheng Guodong
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1897-1904.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190157
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Based on the digital waveform data of the regional seismic network, we inverted the seismic moment tensor solution for the Songyuan M5.1 earthquake by using the ISOLA method. Also,we inverted the stress field of the focal mechanism of the ML>2.5 events in the aftershock sequence by FMSI method. The study results show that the Songyuan M5.1 earthquake has a moment magnitude of Mw 4.9, centroid depth of 7 km, and double couple components of 91.5%. The azimuth and plunge of P-axes are 76° and 3° respectively, and those of T-axes are 166° and 16° respectively. The reduced stress tensor shows that the azimuth and plunge of σ1 are 88.0° and 0.9°, those of σ2 are 178.2° and 9.6°, and those of σ3 are 352.5° and 80.4° respectively, which agree with the region stress field. We suggest that it is the region stress field that triggered the Songyuan M5.1 earthquake, which occurred on the second Songhuajiang fault near the source region.
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Hyperspectral Image Classification Based on Guided Filtering Combined with Local Discrimination Embedding
Zhang Hui, Liu Wanjun, Lü Huanhuan
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 1249-1260.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190133
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Hyperspectral remote sensing image classification is an important part of hyperspectral remote sensing image processing and application. However, hyperspectral remote sensing image has the characteristics of large number of bands and high spatial resolution, which brings some challenges to image classification. To improve the classification accuracy of hyperspectral image and make full use of the spatial and local information, a classification method based on guided filtering combined with local discrimination embedding is proposed. Firstly, the hyperspectral remote sensing image is normalized, the feature extraction is realized by principal component analysis, and the extracted first principal component image is used as the guided image. Secondly, the spatial characteristics of each band are extracted by using the guided filter. Then, the extracted spatial image features are superimposed,and low-dimensional embedding is completed by local Fisher discriminant analysis. Finally, the embedded features are input into SVM to acquire classification results. The experimental results of two hyperspectral images, Indian Pines and Pavia University, show that compared to other relevant methods, the proposed method can obtain higher classification accuracy. When 10% and 100 samples from various ground objects were randomly selected as training samples, the overall classification accuracy increased to 98.28% and 99.45% respectively. At the same time of low dimensional embedding, the proposed method can effectively use the spatial information of images and improve the classification effect.
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Effect of Average Particle Size on Shear Properties of Sand and Its Mesomechanical Analysis
Hong Yong, Li Zirui, Tang Shaoshuai, Wang Luyang, Li Liang
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1814-1822.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190081
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In the view of the effect of average particle size on the shear behavior of sand, a meso-level research was carried out by indoor tests and discrete element simulation methods. Based on the results of three direct shear tests with different average particle size, the PFC (particle flow code) particle flow model reflecting the characteristics of sand shear test was established to study in detail the variation characteristics and laws of soil sample changes, force chain network, porosity, coordination number,and other microscopic structural parameters of sandy soil with different particle sizes during the shear process;And the effect of particle size on the macroscopic shear behavior was analyzed from the microscopic perspective. The research results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the sand shear meso-parameters with different average particle sizes, and the differences are mainly reflected in the shear zone. The effect of average particle size of sand on its shear mechanical properties is mainly reflected in its shear strength and dilatancy deformation. The larger the average particle size is, the higher the shear strength is,and the more obvious the dilatancy effect is. There is a certain difference between the soil particle movement law and the morphological change characteristics of the shear zone during the shearing process:the larger the average particle size is, the larger the proportion of up span particles in the shear band is, and the larger the thickness of the shear band is.
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Zircon U-Pb Age and Hf Isotope Characteristics of Caledonian Pinghe Composite Granite Pluton: Its Mineralization of Granite Weathering Crust Type REE Deposit
Ming Tianxue, Yang Qingbiao, Li Rong, Tang Zhong, Xue Ge, Luo Jianhong, Yu Haijun, Li Yongping
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1685-1702.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190026
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The Caledonian Pinghe composite granite pluton is located on the western edge of Baoshan block in western Yunnan, which consists mainly of monzonitic granite and porphyritic monzonitic granite. The major elements show that the total alkali (w(K2O+Na2O)) values are 6.89% and 7.44%, the K2O/Na2O values are 1.59 and 2.65, A/CNK values are 1.58 and 1.76, and the Rittmann indexes (σ) are 1.65 and 1.73; the trace and REE elements show that these rocks are rich in large-ion lithophile elements (Rb、Th) and depleted of high field-strength elements (Ta、Nb), enriched light rare-earth elements with LREE/HREE value of 1.40 and 6.43, and low-middle Eu anomalies (δEu=0.16 and 0.75). The zircon U-Pb ages of 478-476 Ma indicate that this pluton was emplaced during the Early Ordovician. 38 analyses from the two samples provide a wide range of zircon εHf(t) values, and the corresponding Hf-isotope crustal model ages are 2.2-1.7 Ga. The geochemical characteristics show that Pinghe composite granite pluton is calc-alkaline and per-aluminous S-type granite formed in a stress relaxation stage after the tectonic collision of pan-african movement, and closely related to the process of extrusion, collision, and dissociation during the period of original Tethys geological event in western Yunnan. In Datuanshan, ferromanganese cerium oxide, a rare earth mineral, is found in Caledonian Pinghe composite granite pluton for the first time, which contributes the most to REO in the entirely weathered rock mass. The REO is generally not high, ranging from 279.05×10-6 to 791.77×10-6, overall enrichment of Y, La, Ce elements, and partial enrichment of Nd. The heavy rare earth dysprosium oxide accounts for a high proportion in all of the fully weathered rock mass, were 2.30% to 4.62%. The discovery of Datuanshan rare earth mine shows that the Caledonian granite also has a potential for the granite weathering crust type REE deposit in western Yunnan.
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“Trinity” Metallogenic Characteristics and Prospecting Prediction of Pb-Zn Deposits in Shapinggou Integrated Exploration Area of Jinzhai, Anhui Province
Liu Zhong, Chen Haifeng, Zhang Huaidong, Wang Bohua
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (5): 1539-1551.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190275
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Shapinggou exploration area is located in north Huaiyang metallogenic belt in Anhui, which is the main concentration area of molybdenum lead zinc polymetallic mineralization in west Anhui Province. Dozens of Pb-Zn deposits have been found in the study area,mainly small deposits and lack of systematic research and summary data. In order to determine the relationship between Pb-Zn deposits and the ore-forming geological bodies as well as the types and properties of ore-forming structures and structural planes, the authors summarized the characteristics of mineralization,so as to guide the prospecting prediction. A study was carried out on the "Trinity" metallogenic characteristics of typical deposits in this area. The results show that there are four types of Pb-Zn mineralization: Breccia type, skarn type, structural alteration type, and hydrothermal vein type. The ore-forming geological bodies are of the Late Yanshan intermediate acid magmatic rock, and the ore-forming structures are the intersections intersections of the NE and NW fault structures. The ore-forming structural planes are mainly NE and NW fault structural planes, breccia tube, interlayer fracture zone, and contact zone, etc. Based on the metallogenic characteristics of lead-zinc deposits and the elements for ore prospecting prediction, the geological model for ore prospecting prediction of lead-zinc deposits is established in order to evaluate the ore prospecting potential in this area.
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Spatial and Temporal Distribution Characteristics of Electromagnetic Fields in Strong Noise Area
Zhou Cong, Tang Jingtian, Yuan Yuan, Li Guang, Xiao Xiao, Deng Juzhi
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1870-1886.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190211
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Noise is one of the bottlenecks that restrict the application effect of electromagnetic prospecting. Understanding the characteristics of electromagnetic fields is primary for an electromagnetic research in strong noise areas. Based on the investigation of interference sources and a large amount of measured data in Lu-Zong ore concentration area, we summarized the main types of electromagnetic noise sources in strong noise areas, and the distribution characteristics of the noise-containing electromagnetic fields in time, frequency,and space domain by comparing and analyzing various types of electromagnetic field data with different conditions. The results show that the noise sources in Lu-Zong area can be classified into different forms; the data of the noisy electromagnetic fields often have significant morphological, amplitude, structural, and correlative characteristics in time domain; the spectrum figures often show different time and frequency band characteristics; the frequency domain responses often show distortion in certain frequency bands, and the "near source" distortion is the most typical one. The spatial distribution of noise influence is related to the types of field sources, observation orientations, and underground structures. According to the characteristics of noise data, the pertinent processing algorithm or research direction is pointed out, which provides a reference for the application of electromagnetic methods in strong noise areas.
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Bio-Sensing of 17β-Estradiol Using Aptamer Modified Graphene Oxide
Piao Yunxian, Hu Hui, Yao Lan, Zhang Yu, Liang Lina, Liu Zairan
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (4): 1189-1196.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190052
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In order to improve the detection performance of 17β-estradiol in complex environment water, the aptamer-modified graphene oxide complex was synthesized by immobilization of the aptamer on the surface of graphene oxide with direct adsorption,and it was used for high sensitive and specific homogeneous detection of 17β-estradiol contamination in water. The ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy was used to characterize the aptamer-modified graphene oxide complex. It was found that the complex had a wide peak at 250 nm, which proved that the nucleic acid aptamer was successfully immobilized on the surface of graphene oxide. The fluorescence intensity of the aptamer-modified graphene oxide complex before and after reaction with target 17β-estradiol was analyzed by the fluorescence spectrophotometer. It was found that the fluorescence intensities increased from 110 to 450, and the relative fluorescence intensities were proportional to the mass concentrations of 17β-estradiol in the range of 10-100 μg/L with a minimum detection limit of 6.2 μg/L. This indicates that the complex could be successfully used for the detection of 17β-estradiol.
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Zircon U-Pb Chronology, Geochemistry and Geological Significance of Coarse Muscovite Granite in Pingmiao Mining Area of Dahutang, North Jiangxi
Yu Zhendong, Xiang Xinkui, Tan Rong, Sun Deming, Zhang Si
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (5): 1505-1517.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190297
Abstract36)      PDF(pc) (15420KB)(35)       Save
Dahutang tungsten-copper polymetallic ore concentration area in north Jiangxi is located in the southeastern margin of Yangtze plate and the middle part of Jiangnan orogenic belt, which is one of the world-class tungsten deposits discovered in recent years. In this research, the petrographic, zircon U-Pb chronology, geochemistry and mineralization of coarse muscovite granites in Pingmiao ore of Dahutang were studied. The results show that the muscovite in the granites is a primary muscovite, and the zircon U-Pb age of LA-ICP-MS is (145.7±0.6)Ma, closed to the test age of fine biotite granite in this area, which is the result of crystallization differentiation of homologous magma evolution, and the magmatic intrusion of the second stage of the Yanshanian multiple stages. The Yanshanian rock units are porphyritic-like biotite (muscovite) granite →biotite granite, muscovite granite→granite porphyry;of them, the muscovite granite is one of the important metallogenic geological bodies in this area. The geochemical study shows that the muscovite granite is highly differentiated S-type granite, with high SiO2=73.14%-74.19%, rich-alkali, per-aluminous characteristics,and high differentiation index. The fractionation of light and heavy rare earth is obvious, in deep V-shaped with high left and low right, strong loss of Eu, and REE quadruple grouping effect. The average values of Rb/Sr and Rb/Ba are 151.81 and 245.21 respectively, indicating that the magma is the result of multi-stage crystallization and high differentiation.
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Application of Remote Sensing in Uranium and Polymetallic Mineral Exploration in Xinchengzi Basin, Inner Mongolia
Wu Yanqing, Wang Shicheng, Ding Yuan, Wang Wenzheng, Yu Honglong, Wang Qing, Li Yang
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1917-1928.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190071
Abstract36)      PDF(pc) (17591KB)(26)       Save
The Xinchengzi basin in Inner Mongolia is located in Zhalantun volcanic-type uranium deposit prospecting area in the southern end of Da Hinggan Mountains. The Mesozoic volcanic activities in the basin were frequent and intensive, and regional fault structures were developed. The volcanic-type uranium is the main type of mineralization in this basin. So far, one volcanic-type uranium deposit, two uranium mineralized spots, and twenty mineralization anomalies were found, which indicate that there is great metallogenic potential in this basin. The bedrock of the research area is well exposed, which is conducive to carry out the remote sensing for uranium deposits exploration. In the study area, the author used the remote sensing data to interpret the structure and extract the alteration information. According to the data of GF-1, the study area is characterized by four sets of linear structures of NE, NW, near EW, and near NS. According to Landsat ETM data, the alteration information, such as iron stains and hydroxyl groups, was extracted to narrow the ore prospecting area. In addition, the geological survey and drilling were carried out. Finally, according to the multi-source geo-information, four metallogenic prospecting areas (Husitaibei, Bayanerdeng, Wujianfang and East Renjiayingzi) were delineated. One polymetallic industrial hole in Husitaibei and two uranium industrial holes in Wujianfang have been verified by drilling.
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Depth Erosion and Tracing of Overtopping Landslide Dam Breach
Liu Jie, Li Lihua, Lin Yueshui, Chen Wei, Li Xiaoming
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1795-1803.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200023
Abstract35)      PDF(pc) (8399KB)(27)       Save
In order to understand the failure process of landslide dam, nine sets of flume model experiments were conducted, the depth erosion and tracing of dam breach was further discussed, and the relationship of moving velocity of up-tracing point and breach depth was also analyzed. The results indicated that the angles between the erosion layer and the base bed were changing during the dam failure of non-cohesive landslide dam; The locations of up-tracing and down-tracing point were unfixed,but they could not move to the dam heel; When the slope of the upstream and downstream face slope increased to a maximum of 1:1.5, the ratio of the maximum distance from down-tracing point to downstream toe of the dam to the length of the dam along the flow direction (reflecting the final relative position of the down-tracing point) was correspondingly reduced to the minimum values of 0.24 and 0.18; When the relative scale of the dam reduced from 1 to 1/2, the value of xp*/xd* was correspondingly increased from 0.38 to 0.47. The dimensionless moving velocity of up-tracing point was constantly changing; There was a time delay of the peak breach water depth relative to the peak moving velocity, and the dimensionless delay time was about 0.04.
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Optimization of Hydrogeological Parameters Based on Ergodic Search Algorithm
Qiu Shuwei, Wu Yamin, Ke Yuqi, Yan Baizhong
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1854-1861.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20180323
Abstract34)      PDF(pc) (3160KB)(26)       Save
The traditional Theis wiring method cannot use all the pumping test data, the manual wiring efficiency is low, and the parameter calculation is greatly affected by human subjective factors. In order to solve these problems, based on the pumping test data and Theis formula and superposition principle, the maximum value of Nach-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient of theoretical calculation drawdown and measured drawdown was taken as the objective function. Through Matlab software programming, the hydraulic conductivity coefficient T and water storage coefficient S are traversed within their corresponding ranges by using the ergodic search algorithm, by which the automatic and accurate solution of hydrogeological parameters is realized. The ergodic search algorithm was applied to determine the hydrogeological parameters of two pumping test cases,and the results were compared with those of the traditional methods. The results show that the results obtained by ergodic search algorithm are similar to those obtained by traditional methods,which shows that the ergodic search algorithm is effective and reliable in solving hydrogeological parameters. The values of Nach-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient of theoretical calculation drawdown and measured drawdown obtained by the ergodic search algorithm for the two pumping test examples are 0.996 5 and 0.970 8 respectively, which are closer to 1.000 0, indicating a better fitting degree compared with the parameter results obtained by the traditional methods.
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Identification of Ancient and Old Landslides in Terraces and Its Application in Linear Engineering Investigation
An Yuke, Fan Jiang, Ma Shengwu, Ma Jianquan, Gao Juan, Mao Lijun
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1787-1794.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190302
Abstract33)      PDF(pc) (9156KB)(22)       Save
The ancient and old landslides of terrace type are often greatly influenced by external geological processes and human activities, and the morphological characteristics of landslides are seriously damaged or even disappeared;Therefore,it is difficult to determine their existence by remote sensing technology and general engineering geological mapping;However,they are potential hazards in constructions and operations. In order to identify the ancient and old landslides with unclear shape, the typical material structure caused by the shear failure of the terrace can be traced back from the evolution of the terrace material structure. For example, the broken stratigraphic structure, abnormal directional gravel alignment, augen structure of friction mirror and mud coated particles can be used as the basis to precisely identify the landslides. The criss-crossing tracking method of an engineering geological mapping along gully is used to determine the longitudinal range and sliding surface shape of landslide body, and then the plane range and distribution of landslides at each level and block are deduced according to the geomorphological features. Finally, the conclusion is verified and corrected by point exploration engineering. This terrace landslide identification procedure can be summarized as "recognizing geomorphological anomaly, tracking along the gully, surface inference,and point verification". Combined with the characteristics of each stage of the linear engineering investigation and design, the identification steps of terrace landslide during the preliminary work of linear engineering were put forward and applied successfully in the construction project of Lin-Wei expressway.
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Anisotropy Forward Modeling of Magnetotelluric(MT) Adaptive Finite Element
Feng Kai, Qin Ce
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1887-1896.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190167
Abstract32)      PDF(pc) (14156KB)(22)       Save
Electrical anisotropy is ubiquitous in nature, especially in some sedimentary basins, where some rock layers underwent compaction and metamorphism,showing a strong anisotropic conductivity,on which a positive and negative interpretation is more reasonable and accurate. The forward calculation of magnetotelluric anisotropy by adaptive finite element method was used to simulate the response of horizontal, vertical and oblique anisotropic media at different deflection angles and spindle resistivity in this study. The results show that the adaptive finite element can obtain a reasonable mesh under the control of the posterior error, and make the calculation result closer to the analytical solution; In anisotropic media, the apparent resistivity and impedance phase of the magnetotelluric TE polarization mode is independent of the resistivity perpendicular to the plane; In a two-dimensional anisotropic structure, the magnetotelluric TM polarization mode response is always determined by the resistivity component on the spindle in the y-axis direction.
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LA-ICP-MS Zircon U-Pb Dating and Geochemical Characteristics of Granitic Porphyry in Kaiyuan Area of Northern Liaoning Province
Dou Shiyong
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1752-1765.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190198
Abstract31)      PDF(pc) (10180KB)(28)       Save
The study area is located in the eastern part of the north margin of the North China craton, which is the intersection of the North China craton and the Xingmeng orogenic belt. The author studied the detailed petrology, geochronology and geochemistry of the Fangmu granitic porphyry in Kaiyuan area of northern Liaoning Province, discussed their formation age, petrogenesis, tectonic settings, and the thinning time of North China craton. The LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating was tested for the granitic porphyry. The 206Pb/238U age is (117±1) Ma, which indicates that the granitic porphyry was formed in the Early Cretaceous. The granitic porphyry is characterized by high Si, rich in alkali,poor in Mg and Ca, rich in large ion lithophile elements (e.g. K and Rb),and high field strength elements (e.g. Th, Ta, and Nb), while deplete in Sr, Ba, P, and Ti. Besides, the REE pattern shows a typical right dipping seagull shape. There is a negative Eu anomaly, which indicates that the granitic porphyry is A-type granite (A1 subtype),and formed in the post orogenic extensional environment during paleo Pacific subduction. The magma was from the re-melting of the crustal material caused by the mantle material upwelling. In addition, the study area was a compressional orogenic environment before (156±1) Ma. Thus, we believe that the crustal thinning began in 156-117 Ma.
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Innovated CAFE Process Design and Case Study of Advanced Treatment of Electroplating Wastewater
Fang Chunsheng, Wang Diansheng, Tui Yue, Gao Hanbo, Wang Ju
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1862-1869.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190203
Abstract30)      PDF(pc) (3150KB)(27)       Save
In the process of wastewater treatment in an electroplating park, due to the difficulty of the enterprises in the park to completely separate the quality, the complex breaking of the wastewater treatment is not complete, the hypophosphite and cyanide are complex and difficult to degrade. At the same time,the concentrate has to be treated by advanced treatment, as after the treatment, the contents of metals, total phosphate and nitrogen are still not meet the drainage industial standard. According to the typical water quality and water quantity characteristics of electroplating wastewater in enterprises,the authors studied and designed the advanced treatment technology of innovated CAFE(catalysis-adsorption-filtration-exchange),and introduced in detail the treatment technology, the process,the main equipment and the related design parameters of each process,and further carried out the actual treatment of electroplating wastewater in an electroplating industrial park in Nantong. The practical application shows that the waste water treatment operation of the design scheme is stable. The average concentrations of CODCr,NH4-N,total chromium,hexavalent chromium, and total nickel in the final effluent are 34.00,5.41,0.29,0.03, and 0.05 mg/L,respectively,which are far less than the discharge standards of electroplating wastewater and meet the requirements of advanced treatment of electroplating wastewater. Based on cost-benefit analysis,the treatment has a good market prospect.
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Inversion of the Deep Sea Water Velocity by Using Munk Formulaand Seabed Reflection Travel Time
Sun Jianguo
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2021, 51 (1): 1-12.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200090
Abstract28)      PDF(pc) (1359KB)(16)       Save
Using ideas from computational electromagnetics and the basic procedure from the domain decomposition method, we present a biaxial parabolic approximation method for enlarging the angle domain in which the parabolic approximation to the acoustic wave equation is multiple applied and that can be used for migrating data with super-wide angles. Mathematically, the biaxial approximation is a special case of the multiaxial parabolic approximation, and thus can be straightforwardly extended to multiaxial approximations. In detail, we first divide the subsurface into several fan-shaped subdomains and use the axis of each subdomain as the local wave propagation direction. Then, we make a parabolic approximation to the wave equation in each subdomain with respect to the corresponding symmetry axis and compute the forward-propagating wave alternately using a high-order parabolic approximated wave equation in two subdomains. Finally, we use the computed forward-propagating wave as the boundary condition for calculating the back-scattered wave and Green's function by applying the thin slab approximation. Compared with most one-way methods, the proposed method can deal with the strong velocity contrast in the horizontal direction at a large scattering angles. Moreover, compared with certain full-wave methods that have been published in recent years, the proposed method is considerably more efficient and sacrifices only a little in terms of accuracy. Numerical results from comparisons with models of different complexities demonstrate that our method is cost-effective and has considerable potential for use in seismic modeling and imaging.
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Detection of Paleo-Channels Based on H/α Decomposition: A Case Study of Western Songnen Plain
Zhang Sen, Jiang Qigang, Xi Jing, Gong Yundi
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1905-1916.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200008
Abstract28)      PDF(pc) (32038KB)(241)       Save
Paleo-Channels play an important role in reproducing changes of paleo-climate and paleo-ecological environment. The data of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) record the backscattering information of ground objects in the form of scattering matrix, which can be used to effectively identify the hidden paleo-channels information. The Western Songnen Plain was taken as the research area, and the Sentinel-1 VV-VH dual-polarization data were selected as the data source. The H/α VV-VH dual polarization mode of Sentinel-1 was decomposed, and a two-dimensional H/α plane composed of scattering entropy H and scattering angle α was constructed. Based on the fact that there is bulk scattering in the paleo-channel filled with sediments and secondary scattering at the bottom interface of the paleo-channel, and the volume scattering power is greater than the secondary scattering, it is confirmed that the paleo-channel scattering type belongs to the multiple scattering of high entropy H/α plane. Combined with the Sentinel-2 image, the paleo-channel information in the study area is finally extracted. The results show that the paleo-channel information without obvious features in the Sentinel-2 image can be extracted by the H/α decomposition in the VV-VH double-polarization mode.
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Frost Heaving Feature Analysis and Treatment of Inner and Outer Waterfront Arch Parapet Structures in Seasonal Frozen Soil Regions
Sun Hongwei, Zhai Lijie, Ren Wangzhong, Fu Rujin
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2020, 50 (6): 1833-1843.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200097
Abstract27)      PDF(pc) (12251KB)(21)       Save
In order to clarify the frost damage mechanism of horizontal frost heaving displacement to the inner and outer waterfront arch parapet in the seasonal frozen soil regions, and test the effectiveness of the anti-freezing device with isolation layer, some inner and outer structures in Changchun were taken as the research objects. In comparison with the three arch parapet structures including inner, outer, and experimental inner with isolation layer anti-freezing devices, the horizontal displacement states were observed and measured by steel rule in the three observation years (20101110-20110531, 20131110-20140531, 20171110-20180531) in cold periods. It turned out that there were inward horizontal frost heaving displacement frost damages, such as, tilt and crack in the inner structure. All the inward horizontal displacement curves developed a "half hump" trend according to the temperature;Corresponding to the continuous cooling-continuous low temperature-continuous heating-positive temperature period in the observation year, the inward horizontal frost heaving deformation showed the residual displacement movement of decreasing-increasing-decreasing-stabilizing caused by generating-growing-weakening-disappearing of the horizontal frost heaving stress. There was minor outward displacement to the outer structure, and all the curves of such a displacement showed wavy without any occurrence of frost damages. The horizontal frost heaving stress of the ice convex arch pushed the outer arch structure to compress the frozen soil concave arch to form the outward horizontal frost heaving displacement, which restricted its development. There was no horizontal displacement frost damages in the experimental inner arch structure. The inner horizontal frost heaving displacement is 83.92% less than that of the natural inner structure and 51.74% less than that of the outer structure. This result demonstrates that the anti-freezing device with isolation layer can prevent the horizontal displacement frost damage effectively.
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Complex 3D Model Establishment Under Undulating Surface and Gravity Anomaly Calculation
Jia Zhuo, Liu Sixin, Zhao Xueran, Lu Qi, Li Hongqing, Wang Yuanxin
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2021, 51 (1): 277-285.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190183
Abstract25)      PDF(pc) (8306KB)(6)       Save
Because of the complicated shape of the actual geological bodies, it may be quite different from the real situation when using the cuboid grid to establish the forward model, and the reliability of the calculation results is poor. In this paper, a constrained Delaunay meshing method is proposed to discretize the geological bodies and perform gravity modeling. The grid adaptive cryptography is used in the complex region such as a model boundary to discretize a three-dimensional geological body into a finite tetrahedron;then, the gravity forward formula of the tetrahedral mesh is derived in detail;and finally,the three-dimensional gravity numerical simulation based on the constrained Delaunay meshing technique is realized. For a composite data model, the calculated solution is compared to the analytical solution. And the simulation results of fine mesh are better than that of coarse mesh, and meet the accuracy requirements of numerical simulation. The method was applied to the actual geological body modeling in Jinchuan mining area. According to the local needs, a three-dimensional model with uneven mesh density was built, the surface gravity field of the model was calculated, and the simulation data was compared with the measured data. The results show that the unstructured mesh modeling method is strongly applicable and can simulate the gravity anomalies of complex geological bodies.
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Building Change Detectionin High Resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on FPN Res-Unet
Wang Mingchang, Zhu Chunyu, Chen Xueye, Wang Fengyan, Li Tingting, Zhang Haiming, Han Youwen
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2021, 51 (1): 296-306.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190321
Abstract24)      PDF(pc) (16450KB)(13)       Save
In view of the complexity, heavy workload,and low degree of automation in current survey of land resource change detection, a building change detection method of high-resolution remote sensing image based on deep learning model is proposed, and the idea of semantic segmentation is applied to change detection. Based on the better extraction performance of the residual structure than convolution layers and the characteristics of multi-scale prediction of feature pyramid networks, the residual structure and FPN are fused into Unet model to establish FPN Res-Unet. The model is based on Unet with ResNet residual structure as its feature extraction layer. After each convolution, padding is used to keep the size of the input image and the output image consistent. In the process of sampling at each level of the decoding path, the branch path is expanded to fuse FPN into the network trunk of the model. It fully combines the advantages of residual structure, Unet and FPN, which makes it pay attention to details while obtaining deep semantic information, and improves the detection accuracy of building change. Experiments show that the accuracy rate, recall rate and F1 of the method in the data set used reach more than 90%.
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Model Calculation Method of Radionuclide Groundwater Release Flux of Offshore Nuclear Power Plants
Zhu Jun, Li Ting, Chen Chao, Xie Tian, Zhang Aiming
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2021, 51 (1): 201-211.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190140
Abstract22)      PDF(pc) (16677KB)(18)       Save
In order to quantitatively calculate the release flux of radionuclides to marine environment through groundwater under the situation of drainage pipeline leakage in hilly area, an offshore nuclear power station was taken as an example. Firstly, a three-dimensional topographic geological model was established by using GOCAD software to describe the distribution, denudation,and tendency of strata; Secondly, a three-dimensional hydrogeological model was built with FEFLOW to generalize the characteristics of recharge, runoff,and discharge of groundwater system in hilly area; Finally, the distribution coefficients of 90Sr、137Cs in different groundwater rock and soil media were measured experimentally. After that, the concentration distribution of radionuclides in groundwater after continuous leakage of drainage pipes for 60 a was simulated and calculated. The result shows that the migration velocity of 3H is basically the same as that of groundwater. The maximum concentration of 3H in groundwater is 0.285 0 Bq/L, and the maximum release flux to the receiving water reaches about 526 Bq/d on the 20 000th day. The maximum migration of 90Sr is about 80 m, and the maximum radioactive concentration in groundwater is 0.032 1 Bq/L. 137Cs is retained near the pipeline for a long time because of its strong adsorption capacity, its maximum radioactive concentration in groundwater is 6.840×10-3 Bq/L, and the release flux is 0 Bq/d. Based on the analysis of dispersion uncertainty, the greater the dispersion is, the smaller the maximum radioactive concentration of 3H is in groundwater, and the greater the release flux is to marine environment.
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A 2D Decomposition Real-Time Drawing Method for Geo-Steering of Logging While Drilling
Shao Cairui, Yuan Ye, Zhang Fuming, Chen Guoxing, Cao Xianjun
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2021, 51 (1): 256-265.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190255
Abstract21)      PDF(pc) (10190KB)(9)       Save
According to the real time geo-steering and evaluation mapping requirements of logging while drilling in horizontal and high-angle wells, in view of the disadvantages of traditional borehole information displaying methods, a high efficient two-dimensional decomposition drawing method is proposed for real time logging information, well trajectory and strata. Aiming at the high time and space complexity of the two-dimensional decomposition drawing method, this paper provides local real time calculation and screen copy redrawing algorithms driven by different events, which control the consumption of CPU and memory, improve the drawing efficiency, and eliminate flicker and lag in real-time drawing. The application shows that the two-dimensional decomposition real-time drawing method can realize smooth, non-stuttering real time drawing of large-scale logging while drilling and mud logging geo-steering graphics, also it can improve the accuracy and timeliness of the evaluation of highly inclined and horizontal well reservoir models.
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Discussion on Extent of Exploration Control of Oil Shale Deposits in China
Li Chengbo, Ning Chuanqi, Zhong Changlin, Ren Jianchao, Xu Renyu, Yin Shuqin
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2021, 51 (1): 13-21.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200072
Abstract20)      PDF(pc) (4008KB)(19)       Save
In order to improve the quality of oil shale exploration, according to the results of exploration and evaluation of 47 typical oil shale deposits in China, the metallogenic geological conditions and ore bed occurrence regularity, it is proposed that two geological factors are used to determine the types of exploration and evaluation of oil shale in China, including structural complexity and ore layer stability. The structural complexity is divided into three kinds: simple, medium and complex, and the ore layer stability consists of three types: Stable, relatively stable and unstable, that is, "three kinds and three types". When the kind and type is simple and stable, the exploration engineering interval is 1 000-2 000 m; when the kind and type is medium and relatively stable, exploration engineering interval is 500-1 000 m; when the kind and type is complex and unstable, exploration engineering interval is 250-500 m. In the oil shale actual exploration work, the exploration engineering interval should be chosen basing on the more complicated one in the structural complexity and the stability of the ore layer.
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Diagenesis and Diagenesis Facies of Tight Gas Reservoir of Shahezi Formation, in Xujiaweizi Fault Depression of North Songliao Basin
Zhang Dazhi, Chu Lilan, Zhou Xiang, Wang Xiaolian, Li Xin
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2021, 51 (1): 22-34.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190258
Abstract19)      PDF(pc) (32830KB)(21)       Save
The genesis and distribution of tight sandstones are the key factors that restrict the exploration of tight gas in Shahezi Formation. We studied the diagenetic characteristics of tight sandstones in Shahezi Formation and divided it into 5 kinds of diagenetic facies according to the multiple qualitative and quantitative parameters and on the basis of making full use of core, thin-section, SEM, physical properties and X-ray analysis. They are strongly compacted argillaceous filling facies, moderately compacted feldspar detritus dissolution facies, moderately compacted quartz secondary enlargement facies, moderately compacted chlorite rim cementation facies, and weakly compacted carbonate cementation facies. The different mineral constituent and texture of clastic rocks controlled by sedimentation are the material basis and origin of porosity evolution of different diagenetic facies, the compaction and filling of matrix are the material cause that lead to the loss of porosity in early diagenetic system, and the physical properties are retained and improved by the chlorite rim cementation and feldspar detritus dissolution. The type and intensity of diagenesis are different in different diagenetic facies, which results in the difference of macro properties and micro pore structures. The moderately compacted chlorite rim cementation facies and moderately compacted feldspar detritus dissolution facies show the best reservoir quality in Shahezi Formation, which can be taken as the best future exploration target in the study area.
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Activity and Seismic Risk Assessment of Main Faults in Liaoning Area
Cao Fengjuan, Jia Lihua, Li Mengying, Wang Songyang
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2021, 51 (1): 286-295.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200010
Abstract17)      PDF(pc) (13183KB)(9)       Save
Based on the geometric features and spatial distribution of the major active faults in Liaoning Province, the earthquakes with frequency of ML≥2.0 in Liaoning since 1980 and the earthquakes with annual occurrence rate of Ms≥5.0 since 1900 were studied,their relationship with the tectonic settings of the active faults were analyzed, and the preliminary evaluation results of the seismicity and seismic risk of the main faults and tectonic zones were obtained. The main tectonic faults with high activity are Haicheng River fault, Jiuzhai-Gaizhou north section of Jinzhou fault, Chaoyang-Beipiao fault, etc.; the faults with relatively high risk of Ms≥5.0 earthquake in the next 3 years are Haicheng River fault, Xiongyue fault, Jiuzhai-Zhuanghe fault, Yalu River fault, the intersection of Chifeng-Kaiyuan fault, and Liuhe fault, etc. It is suggested that not only the spatial distribution of the precursory anomalies, but also the activity and seismic risk of the main structures in the region should be fully considered in the regional earthquake risk and hazard assessment.
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Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Simulated Groundwater by Variety of Iron-Modified and Unmodified Biochars
Wang Sheng, Feng Xiang, Li Bing, Guo Lin, Cao Kun, Liu Peng
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2021, 51 (1): 247-255.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190207
Abstract16)      PDF(pc) (3265KB)(8)       Save
Biochar is usually used in Cr(Ⅵ) removal due to its micro porous structure and huge specific surface area, but different biochar has different removal efficiency. Choosing poplar, willow, peach,and pine as feedstocks, twenty types of biochar were prepared through pyrolysis of the FeCl3-modified and unmodified biomass with different particle sizes at 300 ℃ or 600 ℃, respectively. A batch of experiments were performed to evaluate the efficiency of different biochar in removing hexavalent chromium from the simulated groundwater. The mechanism of Cr(Ⅵ) removal by biochar was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge spectrum (XANES). The results showed that the removal efficiency of the modified biochar by pyrolysis at 300 ℃ was over 99.0% of Cr(Ⅵ); The biochar (<0.5 mm) showed better removal efficiency than the biochar with a particle size of 2 mm; The Cr (Ⅵ) removal process by FeCl3BC300Y could be well described by the pseudo-first-order equation; XANES analysis suggested that the chromium on FeCl3BC300Y was in a trivalent state, and FTIR analysis indicated that hydroxyl and carboxylate groups contributed to Cr(Ⅵ) removal. The mechanism of Cr(Ⅵ) removal by biochar included reduction and complexation. The biochar modified by iron is expected as a filler material of permeable reactive barriers, and will become a new material to repair groundwater contaminated by hexavalent chromium.
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Real-Time Flood Routing Simulation of Coastal Cities Based on Hydrodynamic Model
Zhang Wenting, Tang Wenwen
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2021, 51 (1): 212-221.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190171
Abstract14)      PDF(pc) (13605KB)(12)       Save
With the acceleration of urbanization, urban flood and waterlogging disasters are frequent. In order to accurately analyze the impact of flood disasters on the current flood control system and make corresponding measures for flood control and disaster reduction, the lower reach of Ling River along the southeast coast is taken as the research area in this paper. We construct a hydrodynamic coupling model based on Saint-Venant equation, and simulates the process of river burst flood in real time. Considering the factors of the study area such as topography, meteorology, hydrological data, hydraulic engineering, underlying surface conditions and so on, in the coupling connection of one-dimensional river network model and two-dimensional hydrodynamic model, the interactive inundation of water flow inside and outside the river channel in real terrain can be restored to the greatest extent. With the help of typhoon and rainstorm data in the study area, the one-dimensional and two-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic models established are calibrated and validated. The tested models can be used to simulate the real-time submergence of design flood and historical flood in Coastal cities along the lower reaches of Ling River. The results show that the model has good accuracy in simulating the real-time flood routing process under complex terrain conditions, and the error between the calculated value and the measured value of typical section water level along the river system is less than 0.1 m.
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AVOA Inversion Methodof Fractured Reservoir Based on Petrophysical Model
Chen Xiangzhong, Wang Bin
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2021, 51 (1): 266-276.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190291
Abstract14)      PDF(pc) (13896KB)(10)       Save
At present, the P-wave anisotropy-based fracture prediction method is widely-used with relatively satisfactory performance. However, the accuracy of the conventional ellipse fitting method is affected by a series of factors, which leads to inaccurate inversion results of fracture density. In this study, the calculation method of reservoir fracture density in anisotropic media is derived according to the exact formula of Ruger equation. Firstly, the reflection coefficient of P-wave is calculated by using the functions of incidence angle, azimuth angle, Thomsen anisotropy and medium elastic parameters; then the tangential anisotropy coefficient of fractures in the reservoir to be measured is calculated according to the reflection coefficient of P-wave; finally, according to the anisotropy coefficient, the fracture density of the reservoir to be measured is calculated. The fracture density of Zhengbanan area in the Sichuan basin was calculated by using the fracture inversion results obtained from the actual P-wave AVOA data, and the results are consistent with the drilling data. It shows that this method can be used to determine the fracture development status and the fractured reservoir identification.
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Water Quality Prediction of San Francisco Bay Based on Deep Learning
Wang Xinmin, Zhang Chaochao
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2021, 51 (1): 222-230.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190144
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The traditional water quality prediction model is complicated in calculation and will cause errors in the case of large convection, so it is not applicable to intelligent water quality prediction in the era of big data. Based on the data of San Francisco Bay surface water quality research area, the authors studied the water quality of the research area by using data analysis, statistical testing, deep learning time series models,and other technical methods. Based on the principal component information, a long short term memory(LSTM) circulation neural network model was constructed, and further,the water quality of 5 surface water sampling sites was predicted. The results show that the long short term memory cyclic neural network model can effectively control the loop and memory unit structure through gates and the input characteristics of the incoming model, thereby reducing the complexity of the model. Moreover, the prediction accuracy of the two-layer long and short-term memory cyclic neural network model is 5.3 % higher than that of the single-layer long and short-term memory cyclic neural network model.
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Fluid Mobility and Its Influencing Factors of Tight Sandstone Reservoirs in China
Wu Meng, Qin Yong, Wang Xiaoqing, Li Guozhang, Zhu Chao, Zhu Shifei
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2021, 51 (1): 35-51.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190272
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Fluid mobility of tight sandstone reservoirs is of great significance for oil and gas development, prediction,and evaluation. According to relevant domestic achievements in the past ten years, the fluidity parameters, test methods, distribution characteristics,and influencing factors of tight reservoirs were analyzed. It is found that the T2 value of tight sandstone reservoirs is 0.540-41.600 ms, the porosity of the movable fluid is 0.12%-14.35%, the saturation of the movable fluid is 2.16%-90.30%, the lower limit of the pore throat radius of movable fluids in tight reservoirs is 0.013-0.110 μm, the lower limit of pore-throat radius of high pressure mercury injection, nuclear magnetic resonance,and constant velocity mercury injection are 0.037 5 μm, 0.070 0-0.200 0 μm,and 0.120 0 μm respectively, and the water film thickness is 0.05-1.00 μm. Ⅲ-Ⅳ reservoirs are the main types of tight sandstone reservoirs. Statistical analysis shows that the mobile flow saturation of tight reservoirs is low, which is measured by nuclear magnetic resonance and constant velocity mercury injection. The water film thickness is the main factor affecting fluid seepage in tight sandstone reservoirs. The saturation of movable fluid of low-rank coal seams is the highest, the second is that of tight sandstone reservoirs, and the lowest is that of shale reservoirs. The movable fluid porosity of tight sandstone reservoirs is 10 times more than that of shale reservoirs and low-rank coal seams. The movable fluids in sandstone reservoirs exist in pores and throats, and are controlled by these pores and throats. Tight sandstone has a concentrated throat distribution and poor effective pore development, and most of the pores are micropores with a throat diameter less than 1.000 μm. The more concentrated the throat radius, the larger the effective throat radius, and the more favorable the seepage of the reservoir fluid. Lower sandstone permeability (<2×10-3 μm2) leads to faster decay of movable fluid parameters; and higher permeability (>2×10-3 μm2) leads to slower rise of movable fluid parameters. The throat radius is the main factor controlling fluid mobility of tight reservoirs.
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Supracrustal Enclaves in Late Neoarchean Monzogranite in Lianhuashan Area, Western Shandong: SHRIMP U-Pb Zircon Dating and Geochemical Characteristics
Wang Yuqing, Dong Chunyan, Bai Wenqian, Xie Hangqiang, Wan Yuhseng
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2021, 51 (1): 141-153.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200153
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This study was carried out to analysis the SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating and geochemistry of the supracrustal enclaves in the Late Neoarchean monzogranite in Lianhuashan area, western Shandong. The supracrustal enclaves are mainly composed of amphibolite, meta-ultramafic rock with some fine-grained (biotite) hornblende gneiss,and fine-grained biotite gneiss. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the fine-grained hornblende gneiss has a magmatic zircon age of 2 757 Ma, whereas a trondhjemite dyke intruding in the supracrustal enclave has a magmatic zircon age of 2 593 Ma. Some zircon grains separated from meta-ultramafic rock show strong recrystallization and have a large 207Pb/206Pb age variation (2 657-2 397 Ma). The meta-ultramafic rock, amphibolite, and fine-grained hornblende gneiss show LREE-depletion-flat REE pattern, flat REE pattern, and LREE-enrichment REE pattern, respectively, with weak LILE enrichment and insignificant Nb-Ta depletion. Combined with the early work, it is concluded that the rock assemblage, geochemical composition,and formation age of the supracrustal enclaves in the Lianhuashan monzogranite are the same as those of the meta-volcanic series of the typical Early Neoarchean supracrustal rocks (Yanlingguan ‘Formation’) in the adjacent Yanlingguan area, which were formed in ocean environment. The Early Neoarchean supracrustal rocks should be widely distributed in western Shandong more than considered before.
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Geochronology and Geochemistry of Triassic Gabbro in Northern Wulan, Northern Margin of Qaidam Basin
Yue Yue, Sun Deyou, Hou Kejun, Peng Yinbiao
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2021, 51 (1): 154-168.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190224
Abstract12)      PDF(pc) (18906KB)(11)       Save
The Mesozoic magmatic rocks are widespread in Wulan area of northern Qaidam, and consist largely of gabbro, diorite, granodiorite and granite. The LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating of two gabbro samples yield well-constrained ages of (241.9±0.9) Ma and (245.4±1.9) Ma, indicating their formation of the Middle Triassic. Their SiO2 content of gabbro in northern Wulan area is 47.94% and 52.01%, the total alkali content is low (1.25% and 1.47%), and the Ritman index is 0.33 and 0.26 respectively, belonging to cala-alkaline series. They have high Mg# (81 and 79), Cr (1 661.00×10-6 and 1 418.00×10-6), and Ni (394.00×10-6 and 280.00×10-6), similar to those predicted of the original basaltic melts. They have weak LREE/HREE fractionation (3.92 and 3.44) with nearly no Eu anomalies and no obvious magma differentiation. The primitive mantle normalized trace element spider diagrams show enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (e.g., K, Rb) and depletion of high field strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti), characteristics considered typical of subduction-related arc magmatic rocks. The large variation of zircon εHf(t) values (from -3.0 to 9.3) implies that the crustal components seem to have been incorporated in the mantle-derived mafic magmas. Combined with regional geological evolution, we suggest that the gabbro formed in the continental marginal arc environment related to the northward subduction of the Paleo-Tethys Oceanic plate. The fluids released from the subducting oceanic slab promote partial melting of the overlying mantle wedge to produce basaltic magma, which was contaminated by crustal materials or mixed with crust-derived magma during magma ascending.
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Thermoelectric Characteristics of Pyrite from Yongxin Gold Deposit, Xing'an Great Range and Its Indicative Significance
Dong Juan, Li Chenglu
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2021, 51 (1): 95-106.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190153
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Yongxin gold deposit is located in the Heihe-Nenjiang tectonic melange belt in the northeast of the Great Xing'an Range, which is one of the newly discovered altered rock type gold deposit,and is controlled by the tectonic belt in this area. At present, there are few related studies on the genesis of the deposit and ore-prospecting prediction, and many geological problems are still unclear. This study on pyrite thermoelectricity in the deposit is to provide a basis for deep ore-prospecting. A total of 3 200 single crystal grains of pyrite ore samples from 32 drill holes were tested by the BHTE-6 type thermoelectric instrument,and the results show that the pyrite thermal conductance type is N type, which accounts for about 99%,and P type accounts for about 1%. The pyrite thermoelectric coefficient variation ranges from -306. 0 μV/℃ to 296.0 μV/℃. The ore-forming temperature of the Yongxin gold deposit calculated by the thermoelectric coefficient ranges from 190.2 ℃ to 313.5 ℃. The dispersion of pyrite thermoelectric coefficient, the distribution characteristics of conduction type, and the gradient of denudation rate and mapping of thermoelectric coefficient all indicate that the deep northwest part of Yongxin gold deposit still has a good prospecting potential.
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Experiment of Real-Time Motion Law of Fluidic Hammer in Full Stroke Based on Laser Triangulation
Li Guolin, Ge Dong, Yang Zhenglong, Zhang Guang, Peng Jianming
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2021, 51 (1): 185-191.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190046
Abstract11)      PDF(pc) (5098KB)(6)       Save
In order to solve the problem of short measuring distance of the existing Hall element measuring system, the full stroke measuring system based on the principle of laser triangulation was developed. This system can provide full scale measurement and real-time observation. The SC-86H fluidic hammer was used to carry out the related tests, and the full stroke data were obtained. The displacement-time curve and velocity-time curve of the fluidic hammer were obtained through analyzing the experimental data, which provided vital insights into the working features of the impact body. The results show that the irregular movement occurs in the initial stage of the return stroke. This unstable state improves the cycle time, and accordingly reduces the impact frequency. The actual damping stroke is not sensitive to the pump volume,when the pump volume increases from 80 L/min to 220 L/min, the actual damping stroke varies only from 5.9 mm to 6.8 mm. The actual stroke will slightly increase the actual damping stroke,as demenstrated in the test,the actual damping stroke only increased by 7% when the structure stroke increased by 57% (70-110 mm).The experiment shows that this system can measure the whole stroke of the hammer and record the movement state of the hammer in real time.
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Chronological, Geochemical Characteristics and Geological Significance of Early Jurassic Granites in Pingdingshan Area of Lesser Xing'an Range
Yin Zhigang, Gong Zhaomin, Wang Chunsheng, Liu Songjie, Zhang Shengting, Wang Guanqun, Zhou Xiaogang, Zhang Zhihao
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2021, 51 (1): 107-125.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190260
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Lesser Xing'an Range is located in the eastern section of Xing-Meng orogenic belt, and belongs to Songnen block. The zircon U-Pb geochronology and rock geochemistry of the alkali feldspar granite and syenite granite in Pingdingshan area of Lesser Xing'an Range were studied to determine their formation age, rock genesis, and tectonic setting. The dating data show that the alkali feldspar granite was formed in (189±3) Ma,and the syenite granite was formed in (191±3) Ma, which is the product of the evolution of the Early Jurassic magmatic event. The geochemical results show that the rocks are characterized by high silicon (75.00%-77.60%), rich alkali(7.13%-9.00%), poor magnesium (0.05%-0.45%), poor calcium (0.17%-1.10%), low phosphorus (0.01%-0.07%) and titanium (0.09%-0.23%), and A/CNK (0.94-1.17), belonging to metal aluminous-weak peraluminous high-K calcium-alkaline series. The rocks are poor in high field strength elements Nb, P, Ti, Ta and large ion-lithophile elements Ba, Sr, while rich in Rb, K, Th, Hf and other elements. The total amount of rare earth elements is (38.76-297.13)×10-6. The REEs distribution curve shows that the light rare earth elements are slightly enriched, and the heavy rare earth elements are gently inclined to the right with obvious negative Eu anomaly. The zircon saturation temperature and geochemical characteristics show that the rocks are highly differentiated Type I granites. Based on the tectonic evolution characteristics of Lesser Xing'an Range, the Early Jurassic granites in the study area are the products the collision and amalgamation of Songnen block and Jiamusi block along the Jiayin-Mudanjiang suture zone, and the magma was originated from the partial melting of igneous material in the lower crust.
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Current Research States and Development Directions of Fault Sealing Properties
Zhang Danfeng, Fang Shi, Qiu Shankun
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2021, 51 (1): 65-80.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190023
Abstract10)      PDF(pc) (2287KB)(15)       Save
Fault sealing is crucial for hydrocarbon migration and reservoir formation. The fault sealing properties refer to the pressure difference caused by the lithological and physical natures between the upper and lower walls of the fault, which controls the ability of fluid to pass through the upper and lower walls of the faults. The types of fault sealing can be divided into vertical sealing and lateral sealing according to the hydrocarbon migration direction, or sectional sealing and lithological sealing according to the nature of the isolation zone. The controlling factors of the fault sealing are juxtaposition, fragmentation, cementation, smear filling, and asphaltene precipitation, etc. The research methods include Allan section diagram method, section pressure method, mudstone smearing method, acoustic wave time difference method, seismic velocity spectrum identification method, logical information method, non-linear mapping analysis method, fuzzy mathematics method,and connectivity probability method. The current research methods are single quantitative or semi-quantitative analysis at a certain scale. The breakthrough direction of the fault sealing research method will be multi-scale comprehensive quantitative analysis.
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Zircon U-Pb Chronology and Petrogeochemistry of Cenozoic Alkali-Rich Porphyry in Zaojiaochang, Lanping, Western Yunnan
Li Shoukui, Zhang Shitao, Zhao Qinghong, Li Ming
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2021, 51 (1): 169-184.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190229
Abstract10)      PDF(pc) (18505KB)(162)       Save
Lanping basin in western Yunnan has attracted wide attention in geological circles because of its large scale resources and great prospecting potential, however,as one of the only three Cenozoic intrusions in the basin, the Zaojiaochang intrusion is rarely reported. To some extent, this not only affects the overall understanding of the basin evolution and metallogenic mechanism, but also is incomplete for the study of alkali-rich porphyry belt in western Yunnan. A study on petrography, zircon U-Pb chronology and elemental geochemistry, shows that the Zaojiaochang intrusion is composed of monzogranite (central facies) and granodiorite porphyry (marginal facies). The LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating shows that the emplacement age of the Zaojiaochang intrusion is about 34 Ma. The intrusion belongs to high-K calcium-alkali series, with high silicon (w(SiO2)=71.49%-73.17%), peraluminous (A/CNK=1.12-1.32), and high total alkali (w(K2O+Na2O)=7.83%-9.10%). It is rich in LILEs (Rb, Ba, Th, U, K, Hf) and LREEs, relatively depleted of HFSEs (Ta, Nb, Ti and P), with no or weak negative Eu anomalies and special Nb/Ta and Th/U values. Based on the above mentioned data,it is suggested that the magma of the Zaojiaochang intrusion came from deep source, and the parent magmas originated from a metasomatic lithospheric mantle source, and mixed up with crust-source materials later. The comprehensive study shows that the intracontinental subduction of the Tibetan Plateau during the late collision period (40-26 Ma) induced the lateral flow of mantle material,the upwelling of deep asthenosphere, and the forming of the alkali-rich porphyry belt. The Zaojiaochang intrusion was formed in the Late Eocene Lanping basin transformation stage and the mountain intracontinental orogenic extrusion tectonic environment. In the center of the basin, the Lanping-Simao central axis fault with lithospheric fault property reached its peak in this period, and the magma rose along the fault and formed the super hypabyssal alkaline-rich porphyry under a brittle condition near the surface.
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Distribution Mechanism of Oil and Gas in Xijiang Main Depression of Pearl River Mouth Basin
Liu Pei, Zhang Xiangtao, Lin Heming, Du Jiayuan, Feng Jin, Chen Weitao, Liang Jie, Jia Peimeng
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2021, 51 (1): 52-64.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200140
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Xijiang main sag is one of the low exploration sags in the Pearl River Mouth basin. The existing oil and gas traps have obvious differential accumulation patterns, whose formation mechanisms are unclear. Under the guidance of hydrocarbon accumulation theory of fault basins, the source rocks, faults and cap rocks combinations, reservoirs, migration and accumulation patterns are studied by using geological, geophysical and geochemical data. The subsiding centers and primary source rocks transferred from east to west, from the WC 4 Member to the WC 3 Member and the WC 1+2 Member, in the rifting periods. These transferences control the differences of oil-gas distribution between the east and the west. The mudstones in Enping Formation have good quality and large volume. Vertically, high grade source rocks and the lack of later active faults make the oil and gas accumulate in the lower structural layer more easily. In the area where the the mudstone become thinning regionally or the cap rocks are cut partly by later active faults, oil and gas distribute in upper structural layers. The types of "source-to-sink" controls the quality of reservoirs and impacts on the oil and gas accumulating to the lower structural layer. "Storage" migration is the primary mode of the oil and gas accumulating to the upper structural layer. The lower Paleogene structural layer could be one of the key exploration directions, which are the petroleum system around source rocks of the WC 4 Member in the east and the WC 3 & WC 1+2 Members in the west. In the upper structural layers, explorationist should pay more attention on Zhuhai Formation, and find the potential oil and gas zones with "storage" migration mode around the uplifts.
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Impact of Subway Construction on Flow of Baiquan Spring Group in Jinan
Shu Longcang, Wang Xiaobo, Li Hu, Ni Hanxi, Li Gang, Yu Yafei, Wang Xin, Zhang Manqi
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2021, 51 (1): 192-200.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200065
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In order to study the impact of subway construction on the Baiquan spring group (BSG) in Jinan, on the basis of the comprehensive analysis of the geological and hydrogeological conditions of Baiquan spring area, assuming the location and hydraulic properties of the karst water strong run-off belt in the study area, a numerical model of groundwater flow was established using FEFLOW software. Taking the planned subway Line M1 as the research object, the two construction scenarios of pumping and pumping with artificial recharge were analyzed in Jinan East Station, Liangwang Station, and Liangwang East Station. The impact on the flow of BSG in different construction scenarios was analyzed. The results show that the pumping alone of the subway station of Line M1 decreases the flow of the BSG. The simultaneous construction of the three stations has the greatest impact on the spring flow, and the maximum attenuation is 5.48%. When each of the three station is constructed separately, the Jinan East Station has a greatest impact on the spring flow. The spring flow rate is reduced by 0.043×104 m3/d compared to that without construction. Pumping construction with artificial recharge can effectively mitigate spring flow attenuation. The attenuation of spring flow during the construction of different stationsis reduced from 2.26%-5.48% during the construction of pumping alone to 0.08%-1.21% during the construction of pumping with artificial recharge. The strong run-off belts of karst water will form the preferential run-off of groundwater, promote the recharge of BSG, and alleviate the spring flow attenuation caused by subway construction to a certain extent.
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Geochronology, Geochemistry and Geological Significance of Intrusive Rocks in Qianshao Forest Farm of Mohe Area, Great Xing'an Range
Lu Sheng, Wang Keyong, Zhao Huanli, Xiang Lei, Liu Yang, Zhang Zhibo
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2021, 51 (1): 126-140.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190065
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Qianshao forest farm is located at the edge of Mohe foreland basin in the northern part of Erguna block in the north of Great Xing'an Range. The authors studied the petrography, geochemistry, and geochronology of intrusive rocks in Qianshao forest farm, and discussed the formation age, petrogenesis, and tectonic environment of the intrusive rocks. The results of LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating show that the granite was formed in (199.9-199.3) Ma, gabbro was formed at (201.8±2.6) Ma, in Late Triassic-Early Jurassic. The petro-geochemical studies show that the w(SiO2) of granite is 63.22%-70.10%, w(Al2O3) is 12.43%-14.36%, and the Ritman index(σ) is 0.74-1.65, indicating that they belong to cala-alkaline series. They have low Mg# values (average 39.43), w(TFeO) is 2.80%-4.41%, and w(CaO)is 1.47%-3.38%. The REE is characterized by significant fractionation of light and heavy rare earth elements with enrichment of LREE and depletion of HERR, δEu of 0.48-0.84, enrichment of Rb, Ta, K, La, Nd, Zr, Ti, and depletion of Th, U, Sr, P, Eu. The w(SiO2) of gabbro is 51.42%-51.98%, w(Al2O3) is 17.24%-17.73%, and the Ritman index(σ) is 3.00-3.53, indicating that they belong to cala-alkaline series. They have high Mg# values (average 51.07), w(TFeO)is 9.06%-9.14%, and w(CaO) is 5.81%-6.69%, light fractionation of light and heavy rare earth elements with δEu of 0.86-0.98, enrichment of Rb, Ta, Nb, Nd, and depletion of Th, U, P, Eu. The above geochemical characteristics show that the granite was the product of crystallization differentiation of gabbro. The original magma was sourced from the mantle and subsequently contaminated by crustal materials. The intrusive rocks in the study area were formed in the compressive environment of the subduction and collision orogenic stage between the Mongolian and Okhotsk Sea.
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Remediation Effect of Modified Mg(OH)2 on Soil Contaminated by Multiple Heavy Metals
Zhao Wenjin, Gao Miao, Lu Haojie, Ren Liming, Ma Guanqun, Dong Jun
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2021, 51 (1): 240-246.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190155
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In order to find a highly effective remediation agent for soils contaminated by multiple heavy metals, the modified Mg (OH)2 with OH- sustained release function was studied. Through the experiment of stabilization and remediation of heavy metals contaminated soil,the modified Mg(OH)2 stabilization efficiency for multiple heavy metals (lead, cadmium, copper, zinc) in polluted soil and its influence on the form distribution of the multiple heavy metals were studied. The results show that the addition of modified Mg(OH)2 has a stabilizing effect on various heavy metals in soil, and the stabilizing efficiencies for lead, cadmium, copper and zinc are 72.42%, 34.53%, 87.64%,and 97.65%, respectively. Moreover, the modified Mg (OH)2 can significantly reduce the content of exchanged heavy metal states and increase the content of residue states, which can further improve the stability of heavy metals and reduce the bioavailability of heavy metals. In addition, the modified Mg(OH)2 has the characteristics of sustained-release of OH-, which can keep the soil alkaline for a long time,thus the modified Mg(OH)2 is a long-term effective soil remediation agent.
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Source of Ore-Forming Materials in Taoyuan Pb-Zn Deposit in Liaoning Province: Characteristics of S and Pb Isotopic Compositions
Lin Chenggui, Yao Xiaofeng, Cheng Zhizhong, Yan Tingjie, Li Shenghui, Wang Wei
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2021, 51 (1): 81-94.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190117
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Taoyuan Pb-Zn deposit is a newly discovered medium-sized Pb-Zn deposit in the central section of Qingchengzi ore concentration area in eastern Liaoning Province. The orebodies occur in the paleoproterozoic Dashiqiao Formation of Liaohe Group, which is controlled by the strata and fractures obviously. Due to the lack of research on the ore-forming material sources of the deposit, the genesis of the deposit is still unclear. Based on the field investigation and microscopic observation, the S and Pb isotopic characteristics of Taoyuan Pb-Zn deposit were studied in detail. The analysis results of sulfides show that the δ34S values of the sulfides from Taoyuan Pb-Zn deposit range from 3.5‰ to 8.9‰, with an average of 5.5‰, which indicates the characteristics of mantle source sulfur; the Pb isotopic ratios of 206Pb/204Pb are 17.969-18.309, with an average of 18.076; the Pb ratios of 207Pb/204Pb are 15.572-15.669, with an average of 15.617, and those of 208Pb/204Pb are 38.222-38.371, with an average of 38.312. The μ values range from 9.46 to 9.62 (average 9.55), most of them are lower than those of normal Earth. On the Pb isotopic discrimination diagram, the Pb isotopic values are located between the crust and mantle Pb isotopic evolution lines, showing the mixing characteristics of crust and mantle. The S and Pb isotopic compositions of Taoyuan Pb-Zn deposit are similar to those of Qingchengzi Pb-Zn-Au-Ag deposit and Indosinian intrusive rocks, indicating that the ore-forming hydrothermal fluid came from deep magma, but obviously different from those of the Liaohe Group surrounding rocks. It is concluded that Taoyuan Pb-Zn deposit is a magmatic hydrothermal type Pb-Zn deposit, which is related to the deep magmatic fluid activity.
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Effects of Different Water Depths on Growth States of Typha Orientalis Presl,Water Quality and Sediment Physical and Chemical Properties
Zhou Linfei, Kang Siyu, Zhang Jing
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)    2021, 51 (1): 231-239.   DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190170
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In order to study the ecological response law and characteristics of Typha angustifolia in different water depth environments on 2018-06-30, 2018-07-30, 2018-08-29, and 2018-09-28, the changes of growth indexes, water quality factors,and sediment factors of Typha angustifolia under different flooding depths were discussed through field sampling survey and indoor chemical analysis. The results showed that the growth indexes of Typha orientalis Presl were different at different flooding depths. At the water depth of 50 cm, the growth state of Typha orientalis Presl was the best. The water samples of Shifosi reservoir were weakly alkaline over 4 sampling days, and sediment types were acidic neutral sediment. With the increase of the water depth, the mass concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-),and nitrite nitrogen (NO2-) in the water samples gradually decreased, and the mass concentration of total nitrogen (TN) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4+) increased. With the increase of water depth, the overall quality score of ammonia nitrogen (NH4+) and organic carbon (SOC) increased, the quality score of total nitrogen (TN), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-) and nitrite nitrogen (NO2-) decreased gradually, the overall conductivity decreased gradually, and the quality score of the total phosphorus (TP) and available phosphorus (AP) fluctuated substantially. The content of nitrogen in sediment and water had a great influence on the growth of Typha orientalis Presl.
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