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Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)
ISSN 1671-5888
CN 22-1343/P
主 任:蒋 函
编 辑:邱殿明 王晓丽
    刘 莉
电 话:0431-88502374
E-mail:xuebao1956@jlu.edu.cn
地 址:长春市西民主大街938号
    (130026)
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26 September 2020, Volume 50 Issue 5
Metallogenic System of Integrated Exploration Area and New Exploration Progress
Yu Xiaofei, Lü Zhicheng, Sun Hairui, Li Yongsheng, Yuan Huixiang, Du Zezhong, Gong Fanying, Lü Xin, Du Yilun, Wang Chunnü
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2020, 50 (5):  1261-1288.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200070
Abstract ( 108 )   PDF (29009KB) ( 101 )  
The integrated exploration areas (IEA) are located in the paleo-Asian Ocean, circum Pacific Ocean, and Tethys melallogenic domain,with favorbale metallogenic conditions, rich in mineral resources,and diversified types of deposits. Currently, a total of 141 IEAs are arranged over 26 main metallogenic belts in China. Based on the theory of metallogenic system, we carried out a preliminary research on the typical IEAs, and divided them into three and four types of metallogenic systems according to tectonic dynamic mechanism and metallogenic mechanism, respectively, and further divided them into 24 subsystems. In addition, we reclassified 14 metallogenic series and 34 ore deposit types, established the structural model of typical deposits, and on this basis, 15 spatial structural models of metallogenic systems were established. On this basis,using the idea of vacancy prospecting, we adjusted the approach of mineral exploration and made breakthroughs in mineral exploration of new types, new areas, and new space, which promoted the development of the theories of metallogenic system and prospecting prognosis in exploration areas.
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Genesis of Zhaxikang Pb-Zn Polymetallic Deposit in Southern Tibet: Evidence from in Situ S Isotopes of Sulfides
Li Hongliang, Li Guangming, Ding Jun, Zhang Zhi, Qing Chengshi, Fu Jiangang, Ling Chen, Liu Yuqi
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2020, 50 (5):  1289-1303.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190287
Abstract ( 74 )   PDF (12206KB) ( 37 )  
Zhaxikang Pb-Zn polymetallic deposit is the first large-scale Pb-Zn deposit discovered in the eastern Tethys Himalaya (TH), but its genesis is still controversial. Based on the detailed study of the geological characteristics, the authors analyzed the in situ S isotope of pyrite, galena, and sphalerite in the Pb-Zn ore with "concentric ring zone" or "hot water egg" structure in the mine chamber. The results of in situ S isotopic analysis show that the isotopic composition of Pb-Zn ore varies from 8.88‰ -11.83‰, with an average of 10.50‰, and the total sulfur isotopic composition (δ34S∑S) is about 10.07‰. Among them, the δ34SPy of seven pyrite measuring points is 10.29‰-11.14‰, with an average of 10.70‰;the δ34SSp of six sphalerite measuring points is 10.78‰-11.83‰, with an average of 11.49‰;and the δ34SGn of five galena measuring points is 8.88‰-9.18‰, with an average of 9.04‰. It shows a trend of δ34SSp > δ34SPy > δ34SGn, indicating a status of fractionation disequilibrium. Using S isotope thermometer between galena and sphalerite, the Pb-Zn mineralization temperature is constrained between 224 ℃ and 280 ℃ with an average of 259 ℃. Combined with the results of previous studies, it is concluded that the sulfur source of Zhaxikang Pb-Zn polymetallic deposit is mainly from the surrounding strata of Ridang Formation (J1r) with minor magma sulfur, and Zhaxikang Pb-Zn polymetallic deposit belongs to the filling metasomatic mesothermal deposit controlled by the stratigraphic, tectonic and magmatic hydrothermal processes.
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Syntectonic Skarn Characteristics and Mineralization Age of Associated Be-W-Sn Rare Metal Deposit in Cuonadong Dome, Southern Tibet, China
Fu Jiangang, Li Guangming, Wang Genhou, Zhang Linkui, Liang Wei, Zhang Xiaoqiong, Jiao Yanjie, Dong Suiliang
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2020, 50 (5):  1304-1322.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190285
Abstract ( 58 )   PDF (61585KB) ( 37 )  
The newly discovered Cuonadong dome is located in the eastern part of the northern Himalayan gneiss domes (NHGD), which consists of three lithologic-tectonic units, i.e., core, detachment system,and cover rocks. Cuonadong super-large Be-W-Sn rare metals deposit is hosted by skarn and skarn marble in the middle of the dome. The skarn and/or skarnization marble are located in garnet-staurolite-bearing mica schist, and are closely related to the intensively deformed leucogranite and pegmatite, and some skarn minerals are in directional arrangement with strong shear characteristics (i.e. garnet, epidote and amphibole). The boundary between leucogranite and skarn is gradual or sharp, which suggests that both the skarn and the deformed leucogranite were resulted from the syntectonic magmatism.The Ar-Ar dating of biotite from the ore-hosting schist yields Ar-Ar plateau age of (16.6±0.3) Ma and inverse isochronal age of (16.7±0.3) Ma, which represent the age of D2 top-to north extension deformation, and also represent the activity time of the southern Tibetan detachment system (STDS) of Cuonadong dome. The Ar-Ar dating of muscovite from skarn in Cuonadong dome yields Ar-Ar plateau age of (16.9±0.2) Ma, which is consistent with the Ar-Ar plateau age of (16.6±0.3) Ma in schist, and represent the formation age of the syntectonic skarns, which is interpreted as the mineralization age of Cuonadong Be-W-Sn rare metals deposit. Therefore, we suggest that Cuonadong Be-W-Sn rare metals deposit was resulted from the activity of the STDS, and the syntectonic magma intruded in the host rocks along the structural passage, further replaced the marble, which, in turn, resulted in the formation of the Be-W-Sn-bearing skarn ore bodies.
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Petrogenesis and Metallogenic Implication of Ore-Bearing Rock Mass of Copper Polymetallic Ore Occurrence in Duorenze-Sangaka Area, Angren County, Tibet
Zhao Yayun, Liu Xiaofeng, Liu Yuanchao, Ci Qiong, Zheng Changyun, Yang Chunsi, Li Li, Fu Hailong
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2020, 50 (5):  1323-1339.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190280
Abstract ( 46 )   PDF (24181KB) ( 156 )  
The magmatic rocks in Gangdise metallogenic belt are the products of collision orogeny between Indian and Eurasian plates, and are of great significance to the study of collision orogeny and mineralization. Duorenze-Sangaka area is located in the south-central part of Gangdise volcano-magmatic arc, where ore-bearing gray white medium- to fine-grained biotite granodiorite is developed. The study of petro-geochemistry, Sr-Nd isotope, and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating of the biotite granodiorite show that its emplacement age is (49.0±0.7) Ma, in Eocene period. The biotite granodiorites are featured by high silicon (w(SiO2)=67.13%), potassium (w(K2O)=3.72%), alkali-rich (w(K2O+Na2O) =7.48%), and low MgO (1.34%, less than 3%), which belong to high potassium calc-alkaline and highly differentiated I-type granite. The Eu negative anomaly (δEu=0.70) and Sr depletion suggest plagioclase crystallization during magmatic evolution. These samples are rich in Th, U, K, Nd, Zr, Hf, and poor in Nb, Ta, Sr, Ti, P. Their whole-rock Sr-Nd isotopes ((87Sr/86Sr)i=0.705 280-0.705 530, εNd(t)=-2.2-1.6), trace elements, and element ratios reveal that they were derived from mixed crust-mantle sources. The magmatic-hydrothermal mineralization was likely caused by partial melting of lower crust, which was triggered by asthenospheric mantle upwelling through the plate break-out window during the plate fragmental subduction-post-collision of Indian and Eurasian plates. The comprehensive study shows that the porphyry-hydrothermal vein-type copper polymetallic mineralization in Duorenze-Sangaka area was resulted from the eruption of Early Eocene magmatism, which is an important part of the Cu-Au-Mo-Fe-Pb-Zn metallogenic system (52-47 Ma) related to crust-mantle granitic magmatism in Gangdise metallogenic belt.
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Tectonic Setting and Metallogenetic Conditions of Carboniferous Malkansu Giant Manganese Belt in West Kunlun Orogen
Zhang Lianchang, Zhang Banglu, Dong Zhiguo, Xie Yueqiao, Li Wenjun, Peng Zidong, Zhu Mingtian, Wang Changle
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2020, 50 (5):  1340-1357.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190294
Abstract ( 73 )   PDF (22580KB) ( 43 )  
The large scale Carboniferous Malkansu manganese carbonate metallogenic belt in west Kunlun orogen is one of the most important prospecting achievement in China. The belt belongs to the back-arc extension basin of north Kunlun in Late Paleozoic. The basin was formed in the subduction of paleo Tethys Ocean beneath the Tarim plate. The Mn orebody is hosted by the marine sedimentary sequence of the Upper Carboniferous Kalaatehe Formation. The ore is composed of rhodochrosite (75%-95%), pyrolusite, alabandite, and pyrite. Based on petrographic and lithologic studies, it is suggested that the Upper Carboniferous Kalaratehe Formation represents sedimentary sequence of back-arc basin. Based on trace elements, C isotopes(δ13C=-23.3‰--10.0‰), it is suggested that the ore-forming condition of the Carboniferous Malkansu manganese ore body is normoxic . It is speculated that the dissimilatory reduction of manganese oxides in combination with organic matter resulted in the precipitation of manganese carbonates.
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Geological Characteristics, Ore-Controlling Factors and Metallogenic Model of Muhu Manganese Deposit in West Kunlun, China
Dong Zhiguo, Zhang Lianchang, Dong Feiyu, Zhang Banglu, Xie Yueqiao, Zha Bin, Peng Zidong, Wang Changle
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2020, 50 (5):  1358-1372.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190295
Abstract ( 64 )   PDF (47732KB) ( 51 )  
Muhu manganese deposit is located in the eastern end of Malkansu manganese ore belt in the west Kunlun orogenic belt, and research for this deposit is relatively weak. The ore-bearing strata of Muhu manganese deposit is the Upper Carboniferous Kalaatehe Formation, which can be divided into three members from the bottom to the top: Breccia limestone, calcareous greywacke, and carbonaceous marlstone. This typical transgressive sequence reflects the basin evolution from gradual faulting to stable sedimentation. The manganese orebodies occur in carbonaceous marlstone in the upper part of Kalaatehe Formation, and are mainly composed of fine-grained pure rhodochrosite. Based on the detailed mineralogical observation and the previous research advance, we suggest that the rhodochrosite in Muhu formed as a result of manganese oxides reduction by organic matter during burial diagenetic reaction. Three basic conditions are needed for this metallogenic mechanism: Abundant manganese source, redox stratified basin, and large burial of organic matter. In Muhu area, the main favorable ore-controlling factors include extensional tectonic background, strong submarine hydrothermal activities, transgressive event, and warm-humid paleoclimate. Based on the w(Ba)-w(P2O5) diagram and regional comparative analysis, we consider that the oxygen minimum zone expansion model can explain the genesis of Muhu manganese deposit.
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Genesis of M9 Ore Body of Basihu Pb-Zn Deposit in Qinghai Province: Constraints of Fluid Inclusions and H-O-S Isotopic Evidences
Sun Yonggang, Li Bile, Sun Fengyue, Dong Junlin, Qian Ye, Yao Zhen
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2020, 50 (5):  1373-1386.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190276
Abstract ( 51 )   PDF (22782KB) ( 20 )  
Basihu Pb-Zn deposit is located in Tuotuohe area of Qinghai Province in the northern part of Sanjiang polymetallic metallogenic belt. The M9 Pb-Zn ore body is hosted by the cataclastic alterated limestone and micrite of the Lower Permian Jiushidaoban Formation, and the main ore-controlling structure is the NWW trending fault that cuts through the formation. The mineralization process can be divided into three stages: Quartz-pyrite stage (Ⅰ), quartz-barite-polymetallic sulfide stage (Ⅱ), and carbonate-quartz stage (Ⅲ). The ore-forming fluid inclusions are dominated by gas-liquid two-phase fluid inclusions. The homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions in stage I range from 315.1 to 365.9 ℃, with salinities (w (NaCl)) of 8.81%-11.46%. In stage Ⅱ, the homogenization temperatures range from 231.1 to 294.3 ℃, with salinities of 4.80%-10.49%. And in stage Ⅲ, the homogenization temperatures range from 155.1 to 233.7 ℃, with salinities of 2.41%-6.88%, indicating a typical medium temperature and low salinity fluid. The temperature and salinity decreased gradually from early to late mineralization. The H-O isotope data show that the mineralizing fluid was a mixture of magmatic water and meteoric water, mainly magmatic water in the early stage and mixed with meteoric water in the later stage. The S isotope data indicate that the ore-forming material source was related to the deep potassium magmatic activity in Cenozoic. The genetic type of M9 ore body in Basihu Pb-Zn deposit was a mesothermal hydrothermal vein type, and was formed in an extensional environment related to the late stage of the intracontinental orogenesis resulting from the India-Asia collision.
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Characteristics of Gold-Bearing Minerals and Compositions of In-Situ Sulfur of Laojinchang Gold Deposit in Beishan, Gansu Province and Its Ore-Forming Implications
Huang Shiting, Yu Xiaofei, Lü Zhicheng, Liu Jiajun, Li Yongsheng, Du Zezhong, Lü Xin, Sun Hairui, Du Yilun
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2020, 50 (5):  1387-1403.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190301
Abstract ( 52 )   PDF (36236KB) ( 28 )  
Laojinchang gold deposit is one of the most representative medium-sized magmatic hydrothermal gold deposits formed at medium-low temperature in the southern Beishan metallogenic belt. Based on the cross cutting relationships of the different auriferous veins, mineral paragenesis, ore texture and structure, its mineralization stages can be divided into quartz-pyrite stage(Ⅰ), quartz-arsenian pyrite-arsenopyrite stage(Ⅱ), quartz-pyrite-polysulfide stage(Ⅲ), and quartz-calcite stage(Ⅳ). In this paper, the element concentration and composition in the gold-bearing minerals of different ore-forming stages were analyzed by using the electron microprobe analyzer (EMPA). The pyrite of stage I is primarily coarse-grained (0.50-1.50 mm) euhedral cube, with low content of As, Au, and a small amount of fine-grained anhedral asenopyrite. The arsenian pyrites of stage II are surrounded by a large number of arsenopyrites, and the arsenian pyrites are dominantly cubic and pentagonal dodecahedron, rich in As and Au with particle size of 0.30-1.00 mm. Stage II is the most intensive period of mineralization, and the main formation period of arsenopyrites. The arsenopyrites in this stage are primarily appeared as rhombic-columnar, columnar, and radiate-columnar aggregates, rich in S but depleted of As. The pyrites in stage Ⅲ commonly occur as veins of pyrite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite mineral paragenesis, appeared as long strip, with high content of S, Cu, Zn, Au but low content of Fe and As. The mineralization in stage Ⅳ is relatively weak with a small amount of fine-grained anhedral pyrites and asenopyrites. The δ34SV-CDT values of pyrite or and asenopyrite range from -3.8‰ to -2.9‰ (average -3.3‰) in stage Ⅰ, the δ34SV-CDT values of pyrite and asenopyrite range from -4.7‰ to 2.6‰ (average -3.3‰) in stage Ⅱ, and the δ34SV-CDT values of pyrite and sphalerite range from -1.9‰ to 1.0‰ (average 0.1‰) in stage Ⅲ; which suggests a mantle-derived magmatic sulfur provenance, and contaminated by sedimentary sulfur at the late stage, as indicated by in-situ sulfur isotope compositions. Based on the previous study, it is proposed that the ore-forming fluid was evolved from S-rich and As-poor fluids to As-rich and S-poor fluids during the mineralization. In stage Ⅰ, the ore-forming system was in neutral and stable environment with abundant sulfur. In the main stage(II), the ore forming fluid was rich in As, poor in S,and high in oxygen fugacity, and the As-rich fluids was injected into hydrothermal system due to the leaching-infiltration of meteoric water, which led to the formation of the Au-As complexes, and the possible precipitation and accumulation in appropriate place. The ore forming system was characterized by variety of metallogenic elements, rich in S, poor in As, and weak reduction in stage Ⅲ, and Au might enter the pyrite lattice in the form of [Au(HS)2]- or [AuS]- complexes.
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Geochemical Characteristics and Genesis of Jinkengzi Gold Deposit in Wudu Area, Gansu Province
Fan Yuanyuan, Liu Yunhua, Yu Xiaofei, Zhao Qiang, Li Xiaoyan, Deng Nan, Ma Yuanhao
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2020, 50 (5):  1404-1417.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200026
Abstract ( 71 )   PDF (21421KB) ( 28 )  
Jinkengzi gold deposit is located in the southern sub-belt of west Qinling metallogenic belt in the northern margin of Bikou block. In order to find out the genesis of Jinkengzi gold deposit, the field geological characteristics, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur isotopic composition, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the deposit were systematically studied. The results show that the ore bodies occur in the unconformity of phyllite and limestone and the fracture zone nearby, which is mainly controlled by the fracture structure; the δDH2O-VSMOW value of quartz in the different mineralization stages ranges from -81.4‰ to -67.5‰, and δ18OH2O-VSMOW ranges from 7.51‰ to 10.55‰, indicating that the early ore-forming fluid was originated mainly from the deep source magmatic water, and added with atmospheric precipitation in the late stage. The δ34S value of pyrite varies from -0.7‰ to 0.6‰, indicating that the ore-forming material is mainly derived from deep magma, with the addition of stratum material. The homogenization temperature of the fluid inclusions is 155.6-304.0 ℃, and the salinity is 0.53%-13.29%, indicating that the ore-forming fluid has the characteristics of medium temperature, medium-low salinity,and rich in CO2. Based on this comprehensive study, it is believed that the genetic type of Jinkengzi gold deposit is a mesothermal vein-type gold deposit formed in the Late Indosinian period.
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LA-ICP-MS Trace Element Analysis of Sphalerite in Huaniushan Pb-Zn Deposit in Gansu Province and Its Geological Significance
Kang Kai, Du Zezhong, Yu Xiaofei, Li Yongsheng, Lü Xin, Sun Hairui, Du Yilun
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2020, 50 (5):  1418-1432.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190293
Abstract ( 64 )   PDF (21878KB) ( 122 )  
Tianshan-Beishan Pb-Zn metallogenic belt is located in the intersection of Central Asian orogenic belt, Tarim Craton,and North China craton, which is one of the important metal resources in Northwest China. Huaniushan Pb-Zn deposit is a typical genetic deposit in Tianshan-Beishan area. The results of LA-ICP-MS analysis on the trace element composition of sphalerite show that the sphalerite was formed in the medium-high temperature environment and characterized by rich in Fe, Mn, Cd, In, Cu and poor in Ga,Ge,Ni. Among them, Mn, Fe, In, Cd, Cu are in the lattice of sphalerite in the form of isomorphism, whereas Ag and Pb may exist in the form of micro-inclusions. The trace element composition is similar to that of the magmatic hydrothermal deposits (Dulong, Huanggangliang, Meng'entaolegai,Chitudian);in addition, the mass fraction of Tl element and the values of Cd/Fe and Cd/Mn of sphalerite show magmatic hydrothermal properties, and the trace element discrimination figure also falls into magmatic hydrothermal region. The field investigation shows that there are no brecciated or reticular ore bodies at the bottom of the deposit, and the ore bodies are developed in the lithologic interfaces and interlayer fracture zones. Based on the geological characteristics of the deposit and the geochemistry of sphalerite, it is conclude that the genetic type of Huaniushan Pb-Zn deposit belongs to magmatic hydrothermal type formed at medium-high temperature.
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Late Paleozoic Tectonic Evolution of Beishan Orogenic Belt: Chronology and Geochemistry Constraints of Early Permian Syenogranitic Porphyry Dyke in Liuyuan Area, Gansu Province
Sun Hairui, Lü Zhicheng, Yu Xiaofei, Li Yongsheng, Du Zezhong, Lü Xin, Gong Fanying
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2020, 50 (5):  1433-1449.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200085
Abstract ( 58 )   PDF (22618KB) ( 43 )  
Beishan orogenic belt is located in the middle part of Central Asia orogenic belt (CAOB), and it is crucial to discuss the accretionary evolution of the CAOB. Liuyuan area is in the southern part of Beishan orogenic belt, where granitoid rocks and different types of dykes are widely distributed. To study these rocks and dykes can provide us with more important clues about the reconstruction of the geological evolution of this area. The LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating of the syenogranitic porphyry dyke in northeast Liuyuan area yields the weighted 206Pb/238U ages of (288.5±1.4) Ma, the Early Permian. The geochemical results show that the contents of SiO2 and total alkali of the syenogranitic porphyry are high,while the contents of Fe, Mg, Ca, Al and P are low. In addition, the porphyry is characterized by rich in Rb, Th, U and Pb but poor in Ba, Nb, La, Ce, Sr and Ti, with obvious Eu negative anomaly. The value of Rb/Sr is high, the value of K/Rb is low, and the saturation temperature of zircon is lower (730-844 ℃, concentrating around 740 ℃). Based on the above geochemical results and the comprehensive discriminant analysis, we believe that the porphyry belongs to high-K calc-alkaline and high fractionated I-type granites. Also, the syenogranitic porphyry presents a narrow range of Zr/Hf (18.42 to 28.01, average 22.37) and Th/U values (3.82 to 7.99, average 5.34) respectively, which is similar to those of crust sourced rocks. The syenogranitic porphyry show positive εHf (t) values, varying from 2.94 to 9.66, with average of 5.72, and relatively young TDM2 ages, ranging from 955 to 611 Ma. Considering the occurrences of the coeval mafic igneous rocks in this region, we believe that the porphyry magma should be mainly derived from the partial melting of the crust-derived metamorphic igneous rocks with some contribution of mantle materials. The tectonic discriminant analysis shows that the Early Permian syenogranitic porphyry was formed in a subduction environment. Based on the previous studies on the regional tectonic deformation, basin sediment source, and the magma evolution from Permian to Triassic, it is concluded that the accretionary orogenic events in the southern part of Beishan orogenic belt lasted at least until the Early Permian, which provided important constraints on the reconstruction of the tectonic evolution of the Late Paleozoic Beishan orogenic belt.
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Metallogenic Prognosis Model of Xiyi Large Hidden Lead-Zinc Deposit in Baoshan in Western Yunnan Province
Cheng Jialong, Cui Ziliang, Li Jun
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2020, 50 (5):  1450-1461.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190279
Abstract ( 60 )   PDF (18111KB) ( 23 )  
Xiyi Pb-Zn deposit is located in the middle-north section of Baoshan block. The orebodies are mainly hosted in the Lower Carboniferous calcareous rocks of Xiangshan Formation. By using metallogenic prognosis theories and methods in the exploration area, Xiyi large scale hidden lead-zinc deposit was systematicly studied. The deposit genesis is of submarine exhalative sedimentary (SEDEX-type) with hydrothermal superimposion. The metallogenic geological bodies are secondary clastic and carbonate sedimentary rocks in the edge of Baoshan basin, which are superimposed by the Late Paleozoic (Devonian and Early Carboniferous) concealed magmatic rocks. The metallogenic structures are NE or concealed faults and fault fracture zone; the metallogenic structural planes are lithologic interfaces and siliceous-calcium interfaces. The characteristic indicator of mineralization is characterized by mineralization and alteration zoning, and the orebodies exend laterally in NE or NW direction. On these bases, the metallogenic prediction model of stratum+structure+siliceous-calcium interface+mineralization and alteration zoning is established. By using this prediction model, we deliniated the favorable metallogenic areas and suggested the exploration work in the peripheral area of Lutu and Guangyi, where Pb-Zn ore bodies were found.
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Zircon U-Pb Age and Hf Isotope of Multiple-Stage Magmatism and Mineralization in Lianhuashan Region, Eastern Guangdong
Fan Feipeng, Xiao Huiliang, Chen Lezhu, Li Haili, Liu Jianxiong, Deng Zhonglin, Kang Congxuan, Lin Gengwei, Chen Kai
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2020, 50 (5):  1462-1490.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190308
Abstract ( 69 )   PDF (36154KB) ( 30 )  
Lianhuashan region is located in the continental volcanic area of the southeast coast of China, which is an important prospecting area for tungsten-gold mineralization. The authors studied the zircon U-Pb age, granite geochemistry, zircon trace elements, and Hf isotope of the newly found Mesozoic intrusive rocks in Lianhuashan region in the southeast coastal areas of China, and identified three stages magmatism: Middle Jurassic quartz diorite porphyries ((168.0±2.2) Ma), early stage of Early Cretaceous biotite monzonites( (137.5±1.9)Ma), and late stage of Early Cretaceous quartz porphyries ((102.0±1.5) Ma and (98.7±1.8) Ma). The intrusive rocks belong to calc-alkaline, aluminous, strong-peraluminous magmatic rocks. The quartz porphyry and rhyolite porphyry are closely related to the mineralization. The 176Lu/177Hf values of all magmatic zircons are less than 0.002, the 176Hf/177Hf values are mostly less than 0.282 7. The zircon Hf isotope values of εHf(t) are mostly between -2.57 and 1.00, fLu-Hf values are in the range of -0.99-0.95, and their corresponding crustal model ages (TDM2) are mainly 1.00-0.81 Ga, which indicates that the source of diagenetic materials were derived from the partial melting of metamorphic mudstones and metamorphic sands of Neoproterozoic in the lower crust, and mixed with small amount of mantle material. The crystallization temperatures of zircons are mostly in the range of 650-750 ℃, which shows the characteristics of I-type granite. In combination with all these data, the magmatism and mineralization of Lianhuashan region are closely related to the tectonic transformation event. Although there is no high-precision metallogenic age to limit the time of metallogeny, the tungsten-gold mineralization time should be slightly later than the formation time of the quartz porphyry (ca. 102.0-98.7) according to the geological facts and this study results.
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Geochemistry, Geochronology and Genesis of Granites in Shihuoshan Pyrite Polymetallic Ore Area, South Jiangxi Province
He Genwen, Lu Siming, Peng Linlin, Yu Changqi, Li Wei, Liu Cuihui
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2020, 50 (5):  1491-1504.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190284
Abstract ( 48 )   PDF (16158KB) ( 27 )  
Shihoushan ore deposit is the largest skarn-type pyrite polymetallic ore deposit in Jiangxi Province,which is associated with tungsten, copper and gold ore-forming elements, and related to the nearby Chashanjing composite granites. The granites mainly include two periods: Chashanjing porphyritic biotite monzonitic granite and Lianhu fine monzonitic granite. In order to study the emplacement age, petrogenesis,and relationship with mineralization, the U-Pb zircon dating, petrography,and rock geochemistry were tested and analyzed. The results show that the intrusive rocks are characterized by high silicon, potassium, and aluminum, belonging to the high-K calc-alkaline series granites; the fractionation of rare earth elements is obvious in right-wing type, with weak Eu negative anomaly, enrichment of Cs, Rb, Th, U and Pb, depletion of Ba, Nb, Sr and Ti, the feature of low Ba-Sr crust derived granites. The U-Pb zircon dating by LA-ICP-MS yields the concordant age of (162.4 ±0.6) Ma (MSWD=1.8), and the weighted average age of (162.4 ±1.4) Ma (MSWD=1.4), these two are highly consistent within the error range, which implies that the Chashanjing composite granite was emplaced in Middle Jurassic of Early Yanshanianan. Considering the mineral assemblage, major and trace elements and high fractionation characteristics, it is considered that the rock mass belongs to S-type granite. In comparison with ordinary Chinese granites, Chashanjing granites are obviously rich in metallogenic elements such as W, Mo, Bi, and Pb, which might have provided heat, fluid, and material for the mineralization.
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Zircon U-Pb Chronology, Geochemistry and Geological Significance of Coarse Muscovite Granite in Pingmiao Mining Area of Dahutang, North Jiangxi
Yu Zhendong, Xiang Xinkui, Tan Rong, Sun Deming, Zhang Si
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2020, 50 (5):  1505-1517.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190297
Abstract ( 36 )   PDF (15420KB) ( 35 )  
Dahutang tungsten-copper polymetallic ore concentration area in north Jiangxi is located in the southeastern margin of Yangtze plate and the middle part of Jiangnan orogenic belt, which is one of the world-class tungsten deposits discovered in recent years. In this research, the petrographic, zircon U-Pb chronology, geochemistry and mineralization of coarse muscovite granites in Pingmiao ore of Dahutang were studied. The results show that the muscovite in the granites is a primary muscovite, and the zircon U-Pb age of LA-ICP-MS is (145.7±0.6)Ma, closed to the test age of fine biotite granite in this area, which is the result of crystallization differentiation of homologous magma evolution, and the magmatic intrusion of the second stage of the Yanshanian multiple stages. The Yanshanian rock units are porphyritic-like biotite (muscovite) granite →biotite granite, muscovite granite→granite porphyry;of them, the muscovite granite is one of the important metallogenic geological bodies in this area. The geochemical study shows that the muscovite granite is highly differentiated S-type granite, with high SiO2=73.14%-74.19%, rich-alkali, per-aluminous characteristics,and high differentiation index. The fractionation of light and heavy rare earth is obvious, in deep V-shaped with high left and low right, strong loss of Eu, and REE quadruple grouping effect. The average values of Rb/Sr and Rb/Ba are 151.81 and 245.21 respectively, indicating that the magma is the result of multi-stage crystallization and high differentiation.
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Characteristics of Thrust-Nappe Structure and Its Relationship with Mineralization in Xiuning-Shexian Integrated Exploration Area, Anhui Province
Weng Wangfei, Wang Deen, Hu Zhaoqi, Zhu Qiang, Wang Qinian, Wu Jiming, Tang Guoqiang, Zhang Pengfei
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2020, 50 (5):  1518-1538.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190310
Abstract ( 58 )   PDF (32049KB) ( 26 )  
Based on the field geological survey and the comprehensive tectonic interpretation of magnetotelluric sounding electromagnetic array profile, a large-scale thrust-nappe structure is developed in the Late Jurassic in the integrated gold polymetallic ore exploration area in Xiuning-Shexian and its adjacent area, which consists of thrust fault, thrust sheet, original rock series, structural window,and associated traction fold. The thrust-nappe structure is developed in the southern edge of "Tunxi-Xiuning" Mesozoic continental sedimentary basin, which shows that the Neoproterozoic shallow metamorphosed volcano clastic rock series is thrust napped on the clastic rock of Hongqin Formation in Middle Jurassic. The thrust-nappe structure is composed of a series of branch thrust faults, which are characterized by the pre-spreading imbricate thrust. The front edge of the fault is steep and becomes gentle downward. The thrust-nappe structure is distributed in the northeast direction extending up to 40 km in the area, and the nappe area is more than 600 km2 in the integrated exploration area. According to the exposed position of the structural window and combined with drilling and geophysical exploration, the thrust displacement is 2.0-8.0 km. According to the time-space matching of thrust faults,the sedimentary strata,and magmatic activity, it is estimated that the formation time of the Late Jurassic thrust-nappe structure is 163.5-149.0 Ma. Based on the observation of the friction marks of the thrust faults and the analysis of the paleo-stress field, it is believed that the thrust-nappe structure was formed in the regional dynamic environment of the strong northward compression of the South China plate. The thrust-nappe structure is a pre metallogenic structure, its and the later extensional structures play an important role in the intrusion of magma and the circulation of ore-bearing hydrothermal fluid. The thrust-nappe structure controls the distribution and enrichment of gold, silver, lead-zinc, and other low-temperature elements in the integrated exploration area.
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“Trinity” Metallogenic Characteristics and Prospecting Prediction of Pb-Zn Deposits in Shapinggou Integrated Exploration Area of Jinzhai, Anhui Province
Liu Zhong, Chen Haifeng, Zhang Huaidong, Wang Bohua
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2020, 50 (5):  1539-1551.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190275
Abstract ( 38 )   PDF (2914KB) ( 30 )  
Shapinggou exploration area is located in north Huaiyang metallogenic belt in Anhui, which is the main concentration area of molybdenum lead zinc polymetallic mineralization in west Anhui Province. Dozens of Pb-Zn deposits have been found in the study area,mainly small deposits and lack of systematic research and summary data. In order to determine the relationship between Pb-Zn deposits and the ore-forming geological bodies as well as the types and properties of ore-forming structures and structural planes, the authors summarized the characteristics of mineralization,so as to guide the prospecting prediction. A study was carried out on the "Trinity" metallogenic characteristics of typical deposits in this area. The results show that there are four types of Pb-Zn mineralization: Breccia type, skarn type, structural alteration type, and hydrothermal vein type. The ore-forming geological bodies are of the Late Yanshan intermediate acid magmatic rock, and the ore-forming structures are the intersections intersections of the NE and NW fault structures. The ore-forming structural planes are mainly NE and NW fault structural planes, breccia tube, interlayer fracture zone, and contact zone, etc. Based on the metallogenic characteristics of lead-zinc deposits and the elements for ore prospecting prediction, the geological model for ore prospecting prediction of lead-zinc deposits is established in order to evaluate the ore prospecting potential in this area.
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Geological and Geochemical Features of Hushan Gold Deposit in Qixia, Shandong Province
Zhi Yunbao, Sun Hairui, Li Fenghua
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2020, 50 (5):  1552-1569.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200120
Abstract ( 64 )   PDF (12986KB) ( 40 )  
Hushan gold deposit is the largest gold deposit in the southern part of Douya fault. In order to reveal its genesis, based on the geological work of the deposit, the study of the surrounding rock element geochemistry and fluid inclusions of the ore body was carried out. The results show that a large-scale of hydrothermal alteration is developed along the NE-trending faults in Hushan Au deposit,with obvious surface hydrothemal alteration, low Au mineralization, and poor alteration zoning. The borehole logs show that the hydrothermal alteration along the Au ore-bodies is symmetrically developed, displaying sericite-quartz alteration and pyrite-sericite-quartz alteration with the increase of distance from ore-body. The ore-bodies are mainly hosted in the alteraltion zone of pyrite-sericite-quartz alteration at the footwall of Douya fault. The mass-balance calculation shows that the major and trace elements behaved complicatedly during fluid-rock interaction. In the stage of sericite-quartz alteration, Linglong biotite granite experienced the loss of SiO2, Al2O3, FeO,MnO, Na2O, K2O, P2O5, and enrichment of REEs and MgO, CaO, Fe2O3, Au, Ag, Cu, Pb, V, Cr, Co and Ni; in the stage of pyrite-sericite-quartz alteration, FeO, Fe2O3, MnO, MgO, CaO, Au, Ag, Cu, V, Cr, Co, and Ni enterred in the sericite- quartz altered granite, while SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O, K2O and P2O5 moved out. The petrographic, microthermometric, and laser Raman microspectroscopic analyses on the fluid inclusions show that the fluid inclusions are mainly two-phrase aqueous fluid inclusions and CO2-bearing three phase inclusions, which are low salinity (5.33%-13.29%) and medium temperature (260 to 300 ℃) CO2-NaCl-H2O system. The ore fluid experienced fluid immiscibility during the ore-forming process. We believe that the deposit should belong to mesothermal altered rock type Au deposit controlled by Douya fault, which is similar to Jiaojia Au deposit in Jiaodong area.
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40Ar-39Ar Age of Altered Potash Feldspar of Xiejiagou Gold Deposit in Jiaodong and Its Geological Significance
Du Zezhong, Cheng Zhizhong, Yao Xiaofeng, Yu Xiaofei, Sun Hairui, Bao Xinglong, Li Shaohua
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2020, 50 (5):  1570-1581.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20190289
Abstract ( 57 )   PDF (13994KB) ( 20 )  
Xiejiagou gold deposit is located between Jiaojia fault zone and Zhaoyuan-Pingdu fault zone in southwest Jiaodong. Based on the systematic observation of various alteration phenomena in the tunnels, we found that the wall rock alteration of the deposit includes mainly potash feldspathization, silicification, pyrite mineralization, and sericitization, followed by chloritization and carbonation, and the main hydrothermal effects at different stages were determined based on the superposition and interpenetration of alteration. From early to late, it is potash feldspathization, pyrite-sericite-quartz, and steep quartz sulfide veinlet;from the center to both sides,the alteration is steep quartz sulfide veinlet, pyrite-sericite-quartz,and potash feldspathization. The 40Ar-39Ar fine dating of altered potassium feldspar shows that the obtained plateau age is (112.79±0.62) Ma (MSWD=5.76), and the isochronous age is ((115.56±1.72) Ma (MSWD=4.59)). The two ages are almost the same, which indicates that the formation of Xiejiagou gold deposit is the same metallogenic thermal event as the gold mineralization of Jiaodong area. Combining with the regional magmatic evolution characteristics, after the formation of Guojialing rock mass in Jiaodong area, there was still a phase of magmatic activity that is closely related to the gold mineralization at (120±10) Ma.
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Pyrite Trace Element Composition and S-Pb Isotope Characters of the Dabaiyang Gold Deposit, Hebei Province
Tao Lixin, Zhen Shimin, Bai Haijun, Wang Jiang, Wang Dazhao, Zha Zhongjian
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2020, 50 (5):  1582-1598.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200092
Abstract ( 47 )   PDF (17555KB) ( 20 )  
The Dabaiyang gold deposit is located in the Zhangjiakou district of the north margin of the North China craton. It is a middle-scale gold deposit. The ore bodies are hosted in the Huajiaying Formation and Jiangouhe Formation of the Archean Sanggan Group, and controlled by faults and folds with general strikes of north-northwest. The ore types are gold-bearing quartz vein type and altered rock type. The main minerals are magnetite, hematite, pyrite, galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, bornite, native silver, native gold, electrum,and tellurides. Four mineralization stages are recognized, i.e. quartz-k-feldspar stage, quartz-pyrite stage, quartz-sulfides stage, and quartz-carbonate-sulfate stage. The δ34SV-CDT values of sulfide range from -16.2‰ to -10.5‰, which are resulted from the highly oxidizing ore-forming fluids. The 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb,and 208Pb/204Pb values are 16.762-17.293, 15.350-15.463,and 36.777-37.328, respectively. The stable isotope compositions indicate that the ore metals were mostly derived from magmatic fluid. The contents of trace elements in pyrite are low, and mostly in the pyrite lattice. The low Co and Ni concentrations suggest that the pyrite precipitated from magmatic hydrothermal fluid. The amphibolite of the Sanggan Group provides a part of materials for ore-forming fluids, an important source bed. The Dabaiyang gold deposit is a magma-related hydrothermal deposit, which experienced initial gold mineralization in the Devonian and overprinting during the Jurassic-Cretaceous, which also resulted in the large amounts of gold deposits in the Zhangjiakou Xuanhua district.
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Geochemistry and Geochronology of Gabbro in Diyanmiao Ophiolite Belt, West Ujimqin Banner, Inner Mongolia
Xiong Guangqiang, Liu Min, Zhang Da, Wang Zhong
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2020, 50 (5):  1599-1614.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20200011
Abstract ( 65 )   PDF (24754KB) ( 26 )  
The Diyanmiao ophiolite in the west Ujimqin Banner, Inner Mongolia, which tectonically belongs to the Xilinhaote Late Paleozoic fold belt in the southeastern Central Asian orogenic belt, is located between the Erlianhot-Hegenshan ophiolite belt and the Jiaoqier-Xilinhaote ophiolite belt. This study focuses on the geochemical and geochronological characteristics of the gabbros from the Diyanmiao ophiolite. Whole-rock geochemical data show that the gabbros are high Al, lower K, lower Na, and tholeiitic in nature, with w(SiO2) of 45.49%~50.48%, w(Al2O3) of 13.31%~17.05%, w(K2O) of 0.01%~0.65%, w(Na2O) of 0.30%~4.15%, w(CaO) of 8.00%~19.54%, w(MgO) of 5.22%~10.92%, and w(P2O5) of 0.03%~0.23%. These rocks have low total REE contents and relatively enriched HREE. They also show enrichments in K, Ta, and Sr, and depletions in Nb, Zr, Hf, and Ti. La-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating results suggest that the gabbros were formed at Early Carboniferous ((345.3±2.3) Ma). In combination with previously works and regional geology, the authors propose that the gabbros in the Diyanmiao ophiolite were possibly formed by fluids metasomatism in an island arc setting during oceanic subduction, rather than crystallization and differentiation processes.
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