Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)
ISSN 1671-5888
CN 22-1343/P
主 任:蒋 函
编 辑:邱殿明 王晓丽
    刘 莉
电 话:0431-88502374
地 址:长春市西民主大街938号

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26 November 2023, Volume 53 Issue 6
 Classification and Model of Volcanic Facies in the Basin
Tang Huafeng, Bian Weihua, Wang Pujun, Gao Youfeng, Huang Yulong, Zhang Yan, Hu Jingsong
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  1651-1671.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230256
Abstract ( 1592 )   PDF (19422KB) ( 118 )  
 Volcanic facies model in the basin is an important basis for reservoir distribution and identification. There are still some problems including stratigraphic unit inconsistency, unsystematic drilling, and large differences between basins. It is necessary to establish a system of facies models of basic stratigraphic units. This paper summarizes the definitions of facies, lithofacies and volcanic facies. Volcanic facies are divided into three classification schemes, which are for geological mapping and mineral survey in field, modern volcanoes and volcanic rocks in basin. It is considered that it is preferancial to apply the modern volcanic research results to guide the study of volcanic facies in the basin. The deposited units of volcanostratigraphy highlight the elements of rock fabric and geometric shape, and the volcanic facies division scheme of 5 facies, 15 subfacies and 44 microfacies is summarized. The eruptive facies is divided into pyroclastic flow, base surge, volcaniclastic apron, and volcaniclastic diatreme subfacies. The effusive facies is divided into subaerial lava flow, subaqueous lava flow, and subaerial eruption-subaqueous emplacement lava flow subfacies. The extrusive facies is divided into subaerial lava dome, underwater lava dome, and early subaqueous-late subaerial lava dome subfacies. The volcano-sedimentary facies is divided into lahar and debris avalanche subfacies. The subvolcanic facies is divided into dikes, laccolith and sill/lopolith subfacies. The characteristics of the fabric and structure of each microfacies are pointed out. Lava with different chemical compositions can form the same subfacies or microfacies. For example, rhyolite and basalt can both form the braided lava flow subfacies of the subaerial lava flow, while rhyolite, dacite, andesite, and basalt can all form the subaerial lava dome. With respect to the reservoir potential, the braided lava flow microfacies is better than the various microfacies of the subaerial lava dome. Therefore, the classification scheme in this paper can establish a detailed correlation between the subfacies/microfacies and the reservoir, and can be suitable for reservoir prediction and volcanic facies comparison in the basin.
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 Differential Diagenetic Evolution of Deep Sandstone Reservoirs and Hydrocarbon Charge: A Case Study from the Lower Jurassic in the Fukang Sag, Junggar Basin
Zhang Zengbao
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  1672-1688.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230043
Abstract ( 1535 )   PDF (14315KB) ( 44 )  
 Effective reservoir rocks and their genesis in a heterogeneous petroleum reservoir are a critical geological issue of deep exploration. The Lower Jurassic Sangonghe Formation in the Fukang sag, central Junggar basin has been used as a case study to examine the dynamic relationship between diagenetic evolution and oil chargeing in sandstones, and discuss effective reservoir rocks and their formation using an integrated approach of petrography, SEM, stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, and fluid inclusion analyses. The results show the sandstones in the Sangonghe Formation consist mainly of ductile lithic-rich, very fine-to fine-grained, and medium- to coarse-grained petrofacies. The two defined petrofacies are interbeded, and represent demonstrable differences in diagenetic evolution and oil charge. Ductile lithic-rich, very fine-to fine-grained sandstones had a limited diagenetic process in which compaction and neomorphism of easily deformed, clay-rich lithic grains predominated, resulting in a very rapid loss of porosity during burial. They have become relatively nonporous before the first oil arrival and have never been charged later. By contrast, diagenetic events in the relatively coarser-grained sandstones with less abundant ductile-lithic grains included dissolution and cementation as well as ductile compaction. At least two episodes of oil charge occurred. Diagenesis progressed alternately with oil emplacement. The nonreservoir, ductile lithic-rich, very fine-to fine-grained sandstones can constitute impermeable barrier interbeds embedded in permeable reservoir rocks, probably resulting in heterogeneous oil migration.
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Study on the Evolution of Pore Structure Characteristics of Xinjiang Oil Shale During the Heating Progress
Zhang Wen, Lan Sheng, Ma Wenliang, Wang Jia
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  1689-1705.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230033
Abstract ( 1585 )   PDF (13517KB) ( 45 )  
Pore structure is an important feature of oil shale, which directly affects the storage and transport of shale oil and gas. Therefore, studying the evolution of pore structure is of great significance to guide the in-situ exploitation of oil shale. In this paper, taking Balikun oil shale as the research object, based on thermogravimetric (TG), low-temperature nitrogen adsorption (LTNA) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) tests, combined with LTNA-MIP joint accurate characterization methods, to reveal the law of pyrolysis weight loss and pore development characteristics of Balikun oil shale during heating, and study the evolution process and mechanism of pore structure. The results show that the thermal weight of Xinjiang oil shale can be divided into low temperature slow weight loss section (20-360  ℃), medium temperature rapid weight loss section (360-500  ℃), and high temperature slow weight loss section (500-600  ℃). The internal pore types of Balikun oil shale are complex, and during the heating process, the micro and small pores evolve from slit type to conduit shape. The medium and large holes are always mainly inkbottle-shaped. The inkbottle-shaped pores developed intensively in the two temperature ranges of 300-400  ℃ and 500-600  ℃, and the effective pores developed in large quantities at 400-500  ℃. Native macropores dominated the low-temperature section, and the pore structure changed little under the combined influence of free water vapor pressure, mineral thermal expansion, and asphaltene softening. The concentrated pyrolysis of organic matter in the middle temperature section produces a pore expansion effect, the pore volume is significantly increased, and the pore type is mainly mesoporous. The expansion pressure is generated by the water loss of clay minerals and the phase change of quartz in the high temperature section, and the large pores and middle pores are further expanded.
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In-Situ Trace Elements Characteristics of the Scheelite and Metallogenic Significance on Skarn Tungsten Deposits in Eastern Jilin and Heilongjiang Province, NE China
Ren Yunsheng, Li Jingmou, Hao Yujie, Xu Wentan
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  1706-1721.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230232
Abstract ( 1706 )   PDF (22909KB) ( 57 )  
The skarn-type scheelite deposit is an important type of tungsten deposits in eastern Jilin and Heilongjiang of Northeast (NE) China. The large-scale Cuihongshan Wo-polymetallic deposit in Xunke area of Heilongjiang Province and medium-scale Baishilazhi scheelite deposit in Wangqing area of Jilin Province are two representative skarn deposits. To determine their ore-forming fluid characteristics and metallogenic mechanism, scheelite single minerals were selected from these two representative deposits for in-situ LA-ICP-MS trace elements analysis. The results show that the scheelite in Cuihongshan deposit was formed in a Na- and Nb-rich ore-forming fluid system with left-dipped rare earth element (REE) distribution patterns and weak positive Eu anomalies. The substitution of REE3+ for Ca2+ in scheelite from Cuihongshan deposit can be accounted for the substitution mechanism: 2Ca2+ = REE3+ + Na+ and Ca2+ + W6+ = REE3+ + Nb5+. The scheelite in Baishilazi deposit was formed in a Na- and Nb-poor ore-forming fluid system with right-dipped REE distribution patterns and positive Eu anomalies. The substitution mechanism of REE3+ for Ca2+ in scheelite of Baishilazi deposit is 3Ca2+ = 2REE3+ + □Ca (where □ is a site vacancy). The obvious correlation between EuN and Eu*N and the high Mo content in scheelite samples indicates that the ore-forming fluids in two skarn-type tungsten (-polymetallic) deposits in eastern Jilin and Heilongjiang are oxidizing fluids. The Eu anomalies of scheelite in these two deposits are higher than those of their ore-forming intrusions, indicating that water-rock reaction occurred during the fluid evolution. The obvious correlation of Y and Ho contents between the scheelite in different deposits and their ore-forming intrusions, as well as the differences between Y/Ho and La/Ho, reveal that their initial ore-forming fluids are derived from magmatism, and water-rock reaction and fluid mixing occurred during the fluid evolution. Due to data from this studies and previous references, it can be concluded that the water-rock reaction and fluid mixing during ascending of the magmatic hydrothermal are major mechanisms of scheelite mineralization in the skarn-type tungsten (-polymetallic) deposit in eastern Jilin and Heilongjiang.
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Geological and Geochemical Characteristics and Forming Environments of Siliceous Rocks in the Bangong Lake Ophiolite Mélange, Tibet
Liu Demin, Chen Liang, Zhang Li, Lu Wanling, Liu Fei, Qi Yanya, Jiang Huai, Zhao Yue, Zhang Xiaobo, Ru Jiangtao
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  1722-1733.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230165
Abstract ( 1665 )   PDF (29134KB) ( 42 )  
 The ophiolite mélange is an ideal laboratory for studying the process of ocean-continent transition and plate tectonics to intracontinental tectonic transition. In this paper, the petrology and geochemical characteristics of major and rare earth elements of siliceous rocks were studied to judge the origin and forming environment of Bangong Lake ophiolite mélange in Tibet. The siliceous rocks occur as intercalated beds in Shamuluo Formation or fault-fragments in basalt, exhibit cryptocrystalline texture, bioclastic texture and massive structure, and contain abundant Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous radiolarite. They have a SiO2 content of 73.80% to 90.44%,  and a high Al2O3 content of 3.67% to 12.33%. The ratios of MnO/TiO2, Fe2O3/SiO2, Fe2O3/TiO2, and Al2O3/(Al2O3+Fe2O3) range from 0.14 to 0.91, 31.44 to 141.88, 1.83 to 11.80, and 0.66 to 0.96, respectively. After standardization of rare earth elements in North American shale, it shows a flat rare earth distribution pattern, with Ce showing a negative anomaly overall and Eu showing a weak positive anomaly overall; δCe values is 0.77 to 2.03, δEu value is 0.99 to 2.11. The values of (La/Yb) N, (La/Ce) N, (La/Lu) N, (La/Sm) N, (Ce/Yb) N, and (Gd/Lu) N are 0.43 to 1.12, 0.51 to 1.27, 0.44 to 1.26, 0.59 to 1.12, 0.41 to 2.01, and 0.82 to 1.16, respectively. After standardization, the rare earth element chondrite shows a right-leaning rare earth distribution pattern, with overall Ce showing weak positive anomalies and overall Eu showing negative anomalies. The authors propose that the formation environment of the siliceous rocks is not a typical continental margin, but rather a certain distance from the continental margin between ocean basin and continental margin. In combination with the results of area studies, the formation environment of the Bangong Lake ophiolite mélange is preliminarily identified as a back arc ocean basin environment, which is the product of the northward subduction of the Bangong Lake-Nujiang Ocean basin in the Late Jurassic. 
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Neoarchean TTG Gneisses Generated Through Amphibole-Dominated Fractionation in Guyang, Inner Mongolia: Evidence from Elemental Geochemistry and Thermodynamic Modelling
Tong Xin, Shi Jianrong, Wang Huichu, Zhang Jiahui, Ren Yunwei
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  1734-1759.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230205
Abstract ( 1739 )   PDF (62357KB) ( 62 )  
 In Guyang, Inner Mongolia, a significant occurrence of Late Neoarchean (quartz) diorite-tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (DTTG) rock assemblages has been identified. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating has yielded crystallization ages of (2 504±11) and (2 514±7) Ma for the quartz dioritic and tonalitic gneisses, respectively. Additionally, the dioritic gneisses exhibit inherited zircon ages of ca. 2.6 Ga. The quartz dioritic (D) gneisses in Guyang display a relatively low w(SiO2) (62.08%-62.62%), Sr/Y ratios (23.3-39.8), and elevated concentrations of w(MgO) (2.08%-3.06%) and w(TFe2O3) (5.43%-6.01%). Notably, these rocks demonstrate either negligible or weak Eu negative anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.91-0.98) and show subtle differentiation between light and heavy rare earth elements ((La/Yb)N = 7.59-21.60). These features are indicative of island arc calc-alkaline geochemical signatures. Combining these characteristics with zircon Hf isotope compositions suggests that the late Neoarchean diorites likely formed through crustal partial melting under relatively low-pressure and shallow conditions. In contrast, the late Neoarchean tonalitic-trondhjemitic (TT) gneisses in the Guyang area exhibit higher w(SiO2) (67.95%-77.01%), elevated Sr/Y ratios (120.00-941.00), and lower w(MgO) (0.14%-1.29%) and w(TFe2O3) (0.63%-2.66%). They also feature significant Eu positive anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 1.48-8.73) and prominent differentiation between light and heavy rare earth elements ((La/Yb)N = 29.70-140.00). While the consensus attributes the origins of TTG rocks to partial melting of hydrated altered basalts, the geochemical signatures of the   Late Neoarchaean (quartz) diorite-tonalite-trondhjemite (DTT) rocks in the Guyang area allude to fractional crystallization of amphibole. A mixing simulation involving Guyang cumulative hornblendite and trondhjemite accurately reproduces the composition of quartz dioritic gneisses in the Guyang area. Thorough thermodynamic and trace element quantitative modelling reveals that the Late Neoarchean tonalic-trondhjemitic rocks likely formed through multistage fractional crystallization from dioritic magma in a water-rich and relatively low-pressure condition. Amphibole is the primary mineral phase involved in fractional crystallization, with minor amounts of plagioclase and sphene. The high whole-rock Sr/Y and Eu/Eu* values do not indicate sufficient conditions for a relatively high-pressure source.
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 Retrospect, Exploration, and Innovation:A Review on the Tenth International Conference on Gas Hydrates
Guo Wei, Zhang Pengyu, Zhong Xiuping, Wang Xiaochu, Jia Rui, Chen Chen, Wang Yuan
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  1760-1772.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230216
Abstract ( 1524 )   PDF (2679KB) ( 94 )  
 The Tenth International Conference on Gas Hydrates (ICGH10) was held in Singapore on July 9-14, 2023, with over 700 attendees, hosted by the National University of Singapore. ICGH10 received 538 abstracts, including 292 orals and 246 posters. ICGH10 summarized the research progress of gas hydrate in the past six years. This paper reviewed three aspects of them including energy exploration and development, flow assurance and hydrate application technology. As a clean and low-carbon energy source, natural gas hydrate has made many breakthroughs in basic theory and field production engineering, but there is still a certain distance from commercial development and utilization; To achieve efficient transportation of oil and gas pipelines, flow assurance technologies related to hydrate blockage have been widely studied. Many environment-friendly hydrate kinetic and thermodynamic inhibitors have been developed. In addition, hydrate technology is gradually moving from experimental research to commercial application in carbon sequestration, water treatment, and gas storage and transportation. This paper summarized the main content of ICGH10, aiming to introduce the latest international research progresses of gas hydrates.
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 Infulence of Three-Pile Structure with Trefoil-Shaped Distribution on Impact of Debris Flow on Bridge Pier
Wang Changming, Liu Xinlei, Wang Fei
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  1773-1784.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230212
Abstract ( 1536 )   PDF (21033KB) ( 11 )  
How to mitigate and eliminate the impact of debris flow on bridge pier is crucial to the safety of bridges. Taking the three-pile unit with trefoil-shaped distribution as the protective structures, a design principle for the size of this structures is proposed considering factors such as the characteristics of debris flow movement and the width of bridge piers. Firstly, an optimal arrangement of piles is obtained by simulating the impacts of block stone on different types of pile group structures. Then the impact of the debris flow with block stone on the bridge pier under pile structure was analyzed by using SPH-FEM method. The results show that the impact force of large stones and debris flow slurry on bridge piers is 3 843 kN, which is much greater than the impact force of debris flow slurry on bridge piers without protection, which is 1 840 kN, and the impact force of debris flow slurry on bridge piers with protection, which is 1 452 kN. The pile layout with a column spacing of 3.0 m and a row spacing of 1.0 m is the most stable. And after the protective structure was set up, the peak impact force of debris flow slurry, peak stress and peak displacement at the pier bottom whent=8.0 s were reduced by about 21.1%, 79.0% and 29.3%, respectively. Therefore the pile group structure has a significant protective effect on bridge piers impacted from debris flow.
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Seismic Stability of Steep Slope Groups in Typical Canyons of Northern South China Sea
Nian Tingkai, Wang Guodong, Zheng Defeng, Wang Dawei
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  1785-1798.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230270
Abstract ( 1533 )   PDF (18580KB) ( 12 )  
The northern continental slope of the South China Sea is a large-scale submarine slope that extends in a belt-like configuration from the southeastern waters of Hainan Island to the southwestern waters of Taiwan Island. Several canyons and numerous steep slopes are located at this area. Due to the complex geological structure and earthquake-prone nature of the area, various geo-hazards such as landslides are active. In particular, due to the large topographic relief and frequently seismic activity, earthquake-induced landslides often occur in the region. So it is important to scientifically assess the seismic stability of large submarine landslides. In this study, a three-dimensional numerical model was developed using Scoops3D and GIS technology to investigate the seismic stability of typical steep slope groups located at canyons in the northern continental slope of the South China Sea. The results show that :Most of the canyon profiles in the study area are in the shape of “U”, and it is inferred that the canyons are type Ⅱ submarine canyon system. Strong seismic action can substantially weaken the stability of submarine slopes located at canyons, in which the regional minimum safety factors of steep slope groups in C1 canyon dramatically decreases to 0.50 while the horizontal seismic coefficient with the increase to 0.40. The seismic-induced destabilization range of the steep slope groups in the western canyon is significantly higher than that in the eastern region, and most of the landslides are concentrated in the valley walls on both sides near the crests of the peaks, while a considerable portion of the landslides are located at the eastern valley walls of the southern section in C1 and C2 canyons, with the overall distribution being a belt-like shape. 
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Research on Evolution Process and Impact Range Prediction of High Level Remote Collapse and Landslide-Debris Flow Disaster Chain:Taking the “4·5” Tiejiangwan Geological Disaster Chain in Hongya County,Sichuan Province as an Example
Liu Xin, Zhang Wen, Li Gen, Liu Bo
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  1799-1811.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230258
Abstract ( 1515 )   PDF (44216KB) ( 65 )  
 Since the 20th century, the frequency of geological disasters appearing in the form of disaster chains has significantly increased. Currently, there are few researches on the evolution process and impact scope of the disaster chain. In this paper, the evolution process of the disaster chain was illustrated taking the high-level remote landslide debris flow disaster chain in Tiejiangwan, Hongya County, Sichuan Province on April 5, 2021 as an example. The initiation source is high-level collapse, and a large number of falling rock blocks impact and load the rock and soil mass on the lower slope to form a landslide, and then the avalanche debris flow material of the landslide develops into a debris flow towards the Shuangxi River under the influence of rainfall. RAMMS software was used to numerically simulate and analyze the movement process of the debris flow, and its impact range was delineated under different rainfall frequency. The results show that the impact scope covers some scattered farmers in the upstream of Shuangxi Village under the frequency of rainfall in 20 a, the impact area covers the densely populated area of Shuangxi Village under the frequency of 50 a, and the impact area will continue to develop downstream and extend to the residential area of Laozhaohe under the frequency of 100 a. During the disaster chain, the maximum rainfall in the vicinity of Tiejiangwan close to the frequency of 10 a rainfall. It was found that the simulated results of the 10 year return period was consistent with the actual impact range, indicating that the simulation results were reliable.
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Effect of Freeze-Thaw Cycle on the Improvement of Dispersed Soil by Calcium Ion Agent
Yuan Xiaoqing, Wu Zeju, Wang Qing, Chen Huie, Lin Sen, Niu Cencen, Xu Xin
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  1812-1825.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230295
Abstract ( 1500 )   PDF (10999KB) ( 10 )  
 The dispersed soil has very poor water stability and is prone to damage such as pipe surges, caves, gullies and other damage. The seasonal frozen soil may enhance its dispersion during the freeze-thaw cycle in seasonal freezing area. In order to study the effect of different calcium agents on soil dispersion improvement and the influence of freeze-thaw cycle on the improvement effect, first,two kinds of calcium ionizers, calcium oxide and calcium chloride, were used to improve the dispersed soil in the western area of Jilin, and the optimum mixing dosage was determined to carry out the freeze-thaw cycle test. Then, the influence of freeze-thaw cycle on the improvement of soil dispersion was discussed by dispersive identification test, unconfined compressive strength test and microstructure test respectively. The test results showed that the improvement effect of calcium chloride on soil dispersion in western Jilin was better than that of calcium oxide, and the optimum mixing dosage of calcium oxide for improving dispersed soil was 1.6%, while the optimum mixing dosage of calcium chloride for improving dispersed soil only was 0.4%. The calcium chloride improved soil of 0.4% was used in freeze-thaw cycle test, it was still non-dispersive soil after different times of freeze-thaw cycle, and its unconfined compressive strength was a significant decline in the number of freeze-thaw cycles of 0-5 times. However, the decline tendency slowed down and the compressive strength was basically at 60 kPa after more than ten freeze-thaw cycles. By observing the scanning electron microscope images of the improved soil with 0.4% calcium chloride in different times of freeze-thaw cycles, it is assumed that the state of the cracks and pores of the improved soil tend to be stable after 10 times of freeze-thaw cycles. The above test results show that calcium chloride can be used as a good ameliorator to improve the soil dispersion in seasonal freezing zone.
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 Small Strain Dynamic Parameters of Dry Sand by Bender Element
Liu Hongshuai, Song Dongsong, Zhang Dongtao, Li Yanbing
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  1826-1834.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230283
Abstract ( 1495 )   PDF (6309KB) ( 66 )  
 The bender element is a commonly used method for testing small strain dynamic parameters of soil. However, when using bender element for testing, the waveform, frequency, peak value, and sample size can have a certain impact on the determination of the travel time of the wave in soil. At present, the influence of input wave on the travel time of output signal is mostly studid from the aspect of the frequency of input wave, but the the impact of the input wave peak and input waveform on the output signal is soldom studied. Therefore, in this paper the small strain dynamic parameters of dry Fujian standard sand were studied by bender element, and the effects of parameters such as input frequency, input wave peak, input waveform, relative density, and confining pressure on the constrained modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson’s ratio were analyzed. The results show that the input frequency has a significant effect on the travel time of S-wave(shear wave), and basically has no effect on P-wave(primary wave). The magnitude of the input wave peak has no effect on the travel time of S-wave or P-wave discrimination. The input waveform has a significant effect on the travel time of the S-wave or P-wave. The constrained modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson’s ratio of soil vary exponentially with the increase of confining pressure and pore ratio. Based on the small strain modulus prediction model proposed by Hardin, a three-dimensional model formula considering the coupling effect of confining pressure and pore ratio was fitted, which can provide certain reference for the estimation of constrained modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson’s ratio in practical engineering.
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 Influence of Thermal Deformation on Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Clayey Soil
Wang Fugang , Yang Guohua, Cheng Hui, Guan Xiaotong, Yuan Yilong
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  1835-1844.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230267
Abstract ( 1487 )   PDF (3186KB) ( 79 )  
 In order to explore the mechanism of the effect of temperature changes on the permeability of clayey soil at 5-30 ℃, while considering the fluid properties induced by temperature changes and the influence of soil deformation on the hydraulic conductivity, and improve the application range and accuracy of the model, in this paper combination of laboratory experiments and theoretical models were used to study. Then, based on the experimental data of variable temperature seepage, a relationship equation between soil strain and medium void ratio was constructed. Finally, further modifications were made to the modified model of the Kozeny Carman model (REN model). The results show that in the common temperature range of 5-30 ℃ in groundwater, the deformation of soil caused by temperature changes has a significant impact on the hydraulic conductivity of clayey soil. The maximum calculation error of hydraulic conductivity can reach 40% under considering only the variation of fluid viscosity with temperature and ignoring the effect of clayey soil deformation. The modified model has better performance compared to existing hydraulic conductivity models. Through the analysis of the modified hydraulic conductivity model, it was found that the main controlling factor for the change in hydraulic conductivity is fluid viscosity when the temperature is in the range of 5-20 ℃, and has a small impact on the hydraulic conductivity with a degree of less than 10%. When the temperature is in the range of 20-30 ℃, the contribution rate of hydraulic conductivity induced by soil deoformation caused by temperature increase, and an maximum impact on the hydraulic conductivity exceeding 40%.
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Impregnated Diamond Bit Optimal Design and Application in GanQing Tunnel
Ma Yinlong, Zhang Shiyu, Zhou Fujun, Sun Zhigang, Ren Jie
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  1845-1853.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230292
Abstract ( 1548 )   PDF (4399KB) ( 12 )  
The impregnated diamond bit is a micro-cutting edge formed by exposing diamond in the matrix, and realizes the drilling of broken rock by crushing and grinding the rocks under the action of drilling pressure and torque. It can be widely used in hard formation and complex formation drilling. However, conventional diamond drill bits have problems such as low drilling speed, slow footage and high costs in hard formations. Firstly, rock samples, which were sampled in different depths form holes adjacent to the borehole S2Z-45 in GanQing  tunnel, were taken for testing and analysis of their hardness, mineral composition, and drillability. It was determined that most of rock layers were mainly diorite, and the rock’s drillability level was eight. Then, according to the geological characteristics of Ganqing tunnel, the matrix hardness and bottom lip shape of impregnated diamond were optimized. The influencing factors of the performance of impregnated diamond bit was analyzed by field tests. The experimental results showed that the impregnated diamond bit had the best performance when its matrix hardness was HRC 15-20, a diamond particle size was 40-50 mesh, the volume fraction of diamond was 20%, and a bottom lip with a ring groove sharp tooth shape. It has a lifespan of 321 m and a drilling speed of approximately 1.17 m/h. Under the same diamond parameters, the hob type impregnated diamond bit with a matrix hardness of HRC 10-15 had advantages in drilling speed, which the drilling speed of the drill bit could reach 1.44 m/h. The sharp tooth bottom lip surface of the ring groove and high matrix hardness helped to improve the life of the drill bit, while the rolling tooth bottom lip surface and low matrix hardness were beneficial for improving drilling efficiency, but the life of the drill bit was relatively low.
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Influenceof Meltwater on CO2 Laser Ice Melting
Zhang Nan, Wang Yingyu, Pavel Talalay, Fan Xiaopeng, Gong Da, Wang Ting, Han Bo, Wei Xianzhe, Bai Hongliang, Wang Liang
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  1854-1863.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230280
Abstract ( 1521 )   PDF (4491KB) ( 69 )  
 Laser drilling has the advantages of high energy, high directivity, cleanliness, non-contact cutting drilling, etc. In the process of laser thermal melting through the ice, meltwater has a great impact on the laser penetration efficiency. In order to explore the influence of meltwater on laser penetration efficiency, CO2 laser with higher ice absorption efficiency was selected to conduct fixed-point penetration experiments on ice samples prepared by simulated polar ice cores under different irradiation angles and different laser power. The results show that when the negative incidence Angle is -90°--15°, the penetration velocity is 0.67-2.20 mm/s, which is only 21%-40% of the theoretical velocity, and the aperture reaches 3-5 times of the spot diameter. When the Angle of incidence is 15°-45°, the melt water is removed in time due to gravity, and the penetration velocity is 13.19-36.50 mm/s, which is 2.2-6.5 times of the theoretical velocity.
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Risk Assessment and Zoning of Seawater Intrusion Hazard in Coastal Region of Laizhou City Based on AHP-EWM Method
Shu Longcang, Huang Lei, Chen Huawei, Lu Chengpeng, Liu Bo
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  1864-1879.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230047
Abstract ( 1515 )   PDF (6305KB) ( 69 )  
Based on the chain transfer process of seawater intrusion hazard, this study established a risk assessment index system of coastal region in Laizhou City according to the risk of disaster causing factors, vulnerability of disaster bearing body, disaster loss and disaster prevention and mitigation capability and ascertained the weight of each index by combined method of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the entropy weight method (EWM) based on the minimum information entropy, ultimately the total risk value and corresponding ranking were obtained by the comprehensive weighted evaluation method to figure the hazard degree and influencing factors of seawater intrusion in Laizhou City. The calculation result of the total risk index showed that Chenggang Road had the highest risk, with a value of 5.76, and Jincang Street had the lowest risk, with a value of 4.03. According to the total risk value, research zone was divided into the highest risk, high risk and lower risk zone. Pearson correlation test and comparison of risk value of indexes presented that groundwater exploitation intensity with correlation index of 0.917 is the control index of regional seawater intrusion risk assessment and the key factor to prevent seawater intrusion disaster.
Key words: seawater intrusion; AHP; EWM; risk evaluation; Laizhou City
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Characteristics of Groundwater Level Dynamic Evolution and Influence Factors in Mountain-Front Alluvial Plain of   Hutuo River in Shijiazhuang
Yan Baizhong, Gai Junbai, Wang Xinzhou, Zhan Xinkai, Ma Miaomiao
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  1880-1891.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230255
Abstract ( 1662 )   PDF (8709KB) ( 51 )  
 In order to analysis the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics and influencing factors of groundwater level in the mountain-front alluvial plain of Hutuo River in Shijiazhuang under the influence of human activities, based on the data of precipitation, groundwater level depth, groundwater exploitation, population and GDP in the study area, the average groundwater level variation map and groundwater flow field of different stages are drawn, and the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of groundwater flow field are discussed. On this basis, the mechanisms by which human activities (groundwater extraction, artificial governance), natural factors (precipitation) and other factors (population, GDP, land-use type) influence the dynamics of the groundwater level are fully analised. The results show that: 1) On the time scale, the buried depth of groundwater level in the study area increases slowly from 1980 to 2000, increases rapidly from 2000 to 2015, and decreases from 2015 to 2021, and 2016 is the turning point. 2) Groundwater funnel area in Shijiazhuang urban area is large from 1980 to 2015, and groundwater confluence occurs in the funnel area. After 2015, groundwater funnel area in the study area gradually decreases and the confluence gradually disappears. 3) Precipitation and agricultural exploitation of groundwater are the dominant factors in the change of groundwater table from 1980 to 2000, industrial exploitation of groundwater is the dominant factor from 2000 to 2015, and artificial governance is the dominant factor from 2015 to 2021. 4) Population, GDP and land use types indirectly affect the groundwater depth in the study area, and the variation of groundwater depth in the mountain-front alluvial plain of Hutuo River in Shijiazhuang has obvious stage characteristics.
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Thermal-Hydrodynamic-Mechanical (THM) Coupling Simulation of Enhanced Geothermal System Development in Matouying Uplift Area, Hebei Province
Feng Bo, Cao Yunlong, Qi Xiaofei, Cui Zhenpeng, Zhang Lanxin
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  1892-1906.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230230
Abstract ( 1658 )   PDF (9917KB) ( 56 )  
In the long-term mining process of the fractured thermal reservoir of the enhanced geothermal system (EGS), due to the constant extraction of heat from the high-temperature dry hot rock mass, the temperature of the high-temperature granite mass drops, which induces the secondary fracture of the rock mass, and even the occurrence of fluid short circuit reduces the mining efficiency of the geothermal system. In order to ensure the stable extraction of EGS heat energy, it is necessary to establish the coupling model of fluid-solid heat transfer, hydrodynamic and fracture deformation in the test site, and analyze the influence of hydrodynamic and thermal effects on the fracture development law of the reservoir. Based on the test data of circulating water injection at the EGS development site in Matouying Bulge area, Hebei Province, this paper established a coupling model of thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) of microfractures in the site. The accuracy of the THM coupling model was verified by comparing the model simulation results with the field observation results. The increase of permeability of EGS reservoir and the spatial range of stimulation zone reveal that the range of stimulation zone of reservoir fracture is affected by temperature, pressure and injection flow. The results show that increasing the water injection pressure can stimulate the shear fracture of existing fractures and broaden the area of stimulation zone. Reducing the temperature of water injection can improve the permeability of fluid and expand the reservoir stimulation zone. In the initial stage of hydraulic fracturing, the proper use of cold water injection is conducive to improving the reservoir permeability, and increasing the injection flow will expand the range of reservoir stimulation zone.
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 Prediction of Shallow Underground Temperature Based on the PSO-XGB Hybrid Optimization Technique: A Case Study of Changchun City
Yu Ziwang, Zheng Tianqi, Cheng Yuxiang
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  1907-1916.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230263
Abstract ( 1671 )   PDF (9208KB) ( 36 )  
Accurate prediction of shallow underground temperature is of great significance for reducing investment risks and promoting the development and utilization of shallow geothermal energy. In this study, a hybrid model based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) and extreme gradient boosting (PSO-XGB) was developed and compared with single models including K-nearest neighbors (KNN), support vector regression (SVR), random forest (RF), and extreme gradient boosting(XGB). Firstly, 54 sets of borehole data were collected, and the dataset was expanded using Kriging interpolation. Latitude and longitude coordinates, annual average rainfall, annual average temperature, and distance to faults were used as input features for predicting the temperature at a depth of 100 meters underground. Then the performance of the models was evaluated using metrics such as root mean squared error, mean absolute error, coefficient of determination, andmean squared error. The results showed that the PSO-XGB hybrid model outperformed the single models in terms of predictive performance. The ERMS is 0.070 6, the EMA is 0.054 9, the R2 is 0.962 0, and the EMS is 0.005 0, which is significantly higher than the other models in terms of precision and degree of fitting. Therefore, the PSO-XGB hybrid model is superior to the single model in prediction performance.
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Prediction of Greenhouse Gas N2O Emission Reduction Potential in Farmland of Jilin Province
Zhao Yuyan, Yu Qianqing, Tang Xiaodan, Song Meitong, Li Bing
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  1917-1927.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230269
Abstract ( 1636 )   PDF (4730KB) ( 27 )  
 N2O is an important greenhouse gas, and farmland is considered to be one of the major sources of its emission. Exploring the reduction potential of N2O not only provides theoretical and technical support for farmland carbon emission reduction measures, but also provides a scientific basis for the realization of China's "double carbon" goal. In order to reduce N2O emissions in Jilin Province, the denitrification-decomposition (DNDC) model was used for point simulation, result verification and sensitivity analysis based on the data of greenhouse gas emissions from Jilin University Functional Agriculture Base (Hunchun). At the same time, the N2O emissions were simulated from 1991 to 2020 under the conditions of corn planting in Jilin Province, its temporal and spatial characteristics were obtained, and the optimization measures for increasing corn production and reducing N2O emissions were proposed. The result shows that the DNDC model was effective in the simulation of N2O emissions from farmland in Jilin Province. Among all the  factors,  nitrogen fertilizer application rate had the greatest influence on N2O emission, followed by  organic fertilizer application rate, soil organic carbon content  also had a certain infulence on N2O emission,while temperature, rainfall and  proportion of straw returning to field had little influcence on N2O emission. As a result of corn cultivation, N2O emissions are highest in the west, middle in the central region and lowest in the east. In order to reasonably control N2O emissions from farmland in Jilin Province, different field management should be carried out in different regions, and the optimal nitrogen application rates are 400, 330 and 480 kg/hm2 with the best base to topdressing application ratios of 7∶3, 9∶1 and 9∶1 in the west, central and east, respectively. The proportion of straw returned to the field has little effect on N2O emissions. While maintaining production, reducing the mass fraction of organic carbon can decrease N2O emissions from agricultural land.
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Research Develpment of Airborne Gravity (Magnetic) Multi-Components Gradient Detection and Inversion Technology
Ma Guoqing, Wang Junnan, Meng Qingfa, Meng Zhaohai , Qin Pengbo, Wang Taihan, Li Lili
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  1928-1949.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230246
Abstract ( 1593 )   PDF (14993KB) ( 87 )  
Airborne gravity magnetic gradient and tensor gradient measurements can effectively reduce the impact of environmental noise, describe the distribution of geological bodies, and highlight shallow geological bodies with higher resolution. With the develpment of measurement equipment, it has been applied in oil, gas, and mineral resource exploration. This article systematically summarizes the research progress of airborne gravity (magnetic) multi-components gradient detection technology, providing a reference for subsequent related research. The progress development of equipment at home and abroad is summarized based on the research background of airborne gravity and magnetic multi-components gradient technology. The data processing process is introduced based on the characteristics of multi parameter gradient data in airborne gravity and magnetism. Obtained from the airborne gravity and magnetic multi-components gradients’resolution characteristics, we summarize the current high-resolution inversion and joint inversion methods for gravity and magnetic multi-parameter gradients. Derived from the application characteristics of airborne gravity and magnetic multi-components gradient detection technology in mineral,oil and gas resource exploration, the application prospects of this technology in deep resource exploration are analyzed, such as identifying underground structures, searching for mineral resources, and detecting small underground target bodies.
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 Research Status and Prospect of Deep Driving Mechanism of Co-Occurrence of Geothermal Resources and Seismic Activity
Han Jiangtao, Niu Pu, Liu Lijia, Wu Yihao, Xin Zhonghua, Li Zhuoyang, Jia Xiaodong
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  1950-1968.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230247
Abstract ( 1556 )   PDF (25068KB) ( 112 )  
 The geological processes and their interactions in the earth not only control the formation and evolution of global geological patterns, but also control the formation of geothermal resources and the occurrence of seismic activities. Through systematic investigation and summary, this paper systematically discusses the symbiotic deep driving mechanism of geothermal resources and seismic activities. Firstly, the background of the formation of global high-temperature geothermal and large/ultra-large seismic zones are summarized. Most high-temperature geothermal and large earthquakes overlap in spatial distribution and are formed  at  active plate margins, while medium-low-temperature geothermal is often formed in  plates and accompanied by seismic activities. Secondly, the deep driving factors of the symbiosis between geothermal resources and seismic activity are summarized, and it is found that fluid and fault structure play a crucial role in the release of heat energy and earthquake, and are the main controlling factors of geothermal resources and seismic activity in deep depth. Thirdly , the results of deep geophysical exploration of geothermal resources and seismic activity are summarized, indicating that the homology and causality relationship between geothermal and earthquake can be revealed by magnetotelluric methods, and geothermal and earthquake are derived from the exchange of deep matter and energy. Finally, the research methods and development direction of the deep driving mechanism of the co-occurrence of geothermal resources and seismic activities are prospected.
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Research Progress on Seismic Exploration Methods and Technologies for Metal Mines
Zhang Pan, Han Liguo, Gong Xiangbo, Zhang Fengjiao, Xu Zhuo
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  1969-1982.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230275
Abstract ( 1566 )   PDF (7133KB) ( 134 )  
 Seismic exploration technology has the characteristics of large penetration depth and high resolution and is an essential geophysical technical means to achieve the goal of exploring deep mineral resources in China. Compared with non-seismic geophysical exploration methods, seismic exploration methods provide intuitive and straightforward structural imaging, providing powerful guidance for identifying magma migration channels and finding favorable mineralization spaces. At the same time, it can also explore hidden ore bodies in-depth and find mineralization parent materials. It thus can provide strong technical support for developing and utilizing deep mineral resources. This paper reviews the technological development of active source and passive source seismic exploration methods for metal deposits, respectively, and points out the technical advantages and progress of active and passive source joint exploration methods. Multi-source joint seismic exploration method and technology based on active and passive source data fusion, seismic data processing and interpretation method and technology based on scattering theory, high-precision signal-to-noise separation technology, and metal mine seismic exploration method and technology based on artificial intelligence are the key and potential methods to solve the problems of high-precision and high-resolution detection of deep metal mineral resources.
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 Multiple Weighted HVSR Method Based on XGBoost
Han Fuxing, Song Bingxuan, Chen Yubei, Wu Linjun, Huang Mengting, Pan Yanjie
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  1983-1990.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230268
Abstract ( 1567 )   PDF (4763KB) ( 36 )  
 Applying the microtremer H/V method in urban areas faces many complex artificial noises. The microtremer data with a large number of noise needs to be denoised and extracted. In this paper, a   multiple weighted HVSR method based on XGBoost (extreme gradient boosting) is proposed to solve the problems that the existing methods are difficult to deal with the microtremer data with considerable interference and the signal extraction process is cumbersome. Firstly, the amplitude and frequency of the microtremer data are analyzed.  Amplitude-weighted spectral ratio, frequency-weighted spectral ratio, and multiple weighted spectral ratio are established. Then, the denoised HVSR curve is calculated by the XGBoost method. The proposed method is compared with the STA/LTA (short-time average/long-time average) method  to analyze the actual high-noise data, the results show that the proposed  method is better than the STA/LTA method for high-noise data extraction. 
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Review in the Geophysical Methods for Coalbed Methane Resources in Abandoned Coal Mine
Yu Chuantao, Liu Chunlin, Xue Junjie , Zhang Fuming, Li Yong
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  1991-2005.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230284
Abstract ( 1531 )   PDF (11480KB) ( 82 )  
 Coal mining has resulted in large areas of goaf and numerous abandoned mines. There are a large amount of coalbed methane resources in these abandoned mines. Different from conventional coalbed methane resources, the exploration and development of coalbed methane resources in abandoned mines are affected by the distribution of open areas, overburden, surrounding rock conditions, development of fissure zones, and conditions of the roof and floor of coal seams, coal mining methods, groundwater in goaves, etc., and geophysical exploration technology can provide technical support for developing coalbed methane in abandoned mines. This article provides an overview of coal geology in Shanxi and explores the factors contributing to the collapse and water accumulation in goaves. It also examines surrounding rocks and goafs' seismic wave, electrical, induced polarization, and radioactive radon anomalies characteristics. Furthermore, the article introduces various detection methods such as seismic, direct current, controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric, transient electromagnetic, induced polarization, radioactive prospecting, microtremor exploration, aviation, and semi-aviation transient electromagnetic methods. It is pointed out that developing and researching new geophysical techniques, establishing a multi-method, multi-dimensional, and multi-space comprehensive goaf detection system, making full use of geophysical big data, and in-depth exploration of artificial intelligence inversion technology can provide valuable information for coalbed methane resources in abandoned mines in my country. It is providing technical support for exploration and development.
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Remote Sensing Identification of Dendrolimus Superans Infestation Based on Knowledge Graph and Random Forest
Wang Mingchang, Ding Wen, Zhao Jingzheng, Wu Linlin, Wang Fengyan, Ji Xue
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  2006-2017.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230279
Abstract ( 1523 )   PDF (5433KB) ( 54 )  
 Large-scale outbreaks of Dendrolimus superans infestation have led to severe losses of forest ecosystems and economies. It is of great significance to identify the area of Dendrolimus superans infestation quickly and accurately. In this study, knowledge graph technology was used to screen the sensitive features related to forest pests, and a random forest model with three different data combinations was constructed by comprehensive use of multi-source data to identify the Dendrolimus superans infestation occurrence area in the study area by remote sensing. The results are as follows: 1) The knowledge graph can be constructed and screened according to the graph construction process. In this study, the characteristics of forest insect pests were established by remote sensing, and the characteristics of Dendrolimus superans infestation in Northeast China were screened by remote sensing. 2) The combination of knowledge graph and remote sensing technology can provide practical features for constructing the pest identification model; 3) Compared with a single data source, the identification effect of Dendrolimus superans infestation based on multi-source data is better. In this study, the overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient of Sentinel-1A, Sentinel-2A and topographic data were 92.78% and 0.876 6, respectively. 
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 Optimal Path Planning for Earthquake Evacuation Based on Location Assignment Model
Li Yutang, Zhao Jingzheng, Wang Minshui, Ye Yinghui, Wang Mingchang
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  2018-2028.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230235
Abstract ( 1503 )   PDF (7757KB) ( 34 )  
 In colleges and universities with large population and density, scientific planning of earthquake evacuation paths in earthquake-prone areas is of great significance to the life and property safety of teachers and students. Based on the extraction of spatial distribution information and relevant survey  of Chaoyang Campus, Jilin University,    this study realizes the scientific planning of the evacuation paths of  daytime and nighttime simulated scenarios in the study area using  location allocation (LA) model  and  Dijkstra optimal path algorithm, combined with service domain analysis and  optimal path analysis. The results show that playgrounds, outdoor basketball courts, open meadows, and some large parking lots can be used as backup safety zones in the earthquake evacuation plan of universities. LA model and Dijkstra algorithm can meet the requirements of earthquake evacuation planning when evacuation directions do not conflict, and the capacity of the safety zone is large. In view of  the unbalanced space distribution of earthquake evacuation safety places in campus, some suggestions are put forward to improve the earthquake escape system in colleges and universities, such as balanced distribution of open space, increasing the facilities of earthquake evacuation, and strengthening the skills of earthquake evacuation.
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 Review on Research Progress of Recovering Bathymetry from Satellite Altimetry-Derived Data
Jiang Tao, Jiang Xiao , Guo Jinyun, Zhang Zhonghui
Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition). 2023, 53 (6):  2029-2044.  DOI: 10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.20230285
Abstract ( 1546 )   PDF (11078KB) ( 55 )  
 High-precision, high-resolution global seafloor topography models are critical foundational datasets for studying the Earth’s shape and interior structure. They are significant in multiple domains, including seafloor plate movement research, early tsunami monitoring, deep-sea resource exploration, underwater marine construction projects, ensuring maritime safety, and delineating marine territorial boundaries. The extensive and profound realms of the oceans present a formidable challenge for meticulously mapping the seafloor topography. However, satellite altimetry, with its global coverage, high precision, high resolution, and the ability to conduct regular observations of ocean dynamics, has emerged as the primary method for obtaining global bathymetric data. This paper provides an overview of the current state and recent developments in recovering bathymetry from satellite altimetry-derived data. It encompasses fundamental principles, major modes, and missions in satellite altimetry, marine gravity field inversion, methods for seafloor topography inversion, and seafloor topography model products. Additionally, the paper provides insights into the trends and prospects for constructing high-precision, dynamic global seafloor topography models.
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