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Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition)
ISSN 1671-5888
CN 22-1343/P
主 任:蒋 函
编 辑:邱殿明 王晓丽
    刘 莉
电 话:0431-88502374
E-mail:xuebao1956@jlu.edu.cn
地 址:长春市西民主大街938号
    (130026)
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Table of Content
26 September 2012, Volume 42 Issue 5
Geology of the Mo Deposits in Northeast China
CHEN Yan-jing, ZHANG Cheng, LI Nuo, YANG Yong-fei, DENG Ke
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1223-1268. 
Abstract ( 662 )   PDF (7072KB) ( 1148 )  

The Northeast (NE) China is located in the combining area of the Central Asian orogenic belt and the circum-pacific orogenic belt, accommodating intensive and complicated mineralizations. The authors summarizes the progresses in exploration and geological research of the Mo deposits in the area, and draws out several conclusions as below: 1)More than seventy Mo deposits have been discovered in NE China, including three world-class giant and eighteen large deposits, with total  resource being next to the eastern Qinling Mo belt; 2)The main genetic types are Mo-bearing porphyry (including explosive breccia pipe) and skarn, and minor of hydrothermal vein; 3)The Mo-associated intrusions are generally Si-and K-enriched calc-alkaline I-type granites, and have been formed by multi-episodic and multistage magmatism; 4)The Mo deposits are concentrated in regions: the northern margin of North China craton, the southern Great Hinggan Range, the northern Great Hinggan Range and the Ji-Hei fold belt; 5)The Mo deposits were formed in multi-episodic and multistage events coinciding magmatic activities, but the majority were formed in Mesozoic, with three peak-mineralization pulses at 250-210, 190-160 and 150-110 Ma, respectively; 6)The Re contents in molybdenites from the Mo deposits are widely variable and generaly low, indicating that the metal sources vary from mantle to crust, but mainly from continental crust; 7)The Re contents in molybdenites and the reserve ratio of Cu/Mo increase along with the metallogenic time of the deposits; 8)The Mo deposits in NE China were formed in subduction-related accretionary orogenesis and continental collision orogenesis (including post-collisional tevtonism), but the Mo-only deposits began to appear in Triassic, i.e. only in continental collision setting (including post-collision).

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Discussion on Phanerozoic Tectonic Evolution in Northeastern China
ZHANG Xin-zhou, MA Yu-xia, CHI Xiao-guo, ZHANG Feng-xu, SUN Yao-wu, GUO Ye, ZENG Zhen
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1269-1285. 
Abstract ( 822 )   PDF (1669KB) ( 1308 )  

The authors accumulate a large amount of new data of regional geology and geochronology in recent years and makes a generalization and summation of the tectonic nature and evolution in Northeastern China. A comprehensive study indicates that the NE China continent is composed mostly of relatively stablae massifs, rather than orogenic belt since Late Paleozoic. All of these massifs include the basements of Precambrian-Early Precambrian, even Archean, and were simultaneously subjected to metamorphism and granitic magmatism in early Early Paleozoic(490-510 Ma). During 350-450 Ma, at least two stable microcontinents of Erguna-Xing’an and Songnen-Jiamusi composed of massifs solidified in 490-510 Ma existed in NE China, marked by without magmatism, which are northwards linked together with Erguna and Buriya massifs in Russia,respectively. These two microcontinents collided together along a NNE-trending Kailu-Nenjiang-Heihe(NE China)-Nora-Soukhotin(Russia) in Early Carboniferous and formed a Northeast Asia continental plate(NACP).The well-known Xilamulunhe fault is commonly referred as a final collision zone between NACP and North China plate, but the west end of the fault is cut by NNE-trending fault, and east end linked together with Kailu-Nenjiang collision zone and not stretches eastwards into Songliao basin, indicating the Xilamulunhe fault is possibly related to the formation of Kailu-Nenjiang collision zone. From Late Carboniferous to Mid Permain, the NACP on the whole was at extension setting where at least in NE China, a series of faulted basins with predominant volcanics formed in early time and a large marine sedimentary basin formed in Mid Permian. All of the Late Paleozoic volcanics and sedimentary rocks do not suffer regional metamorphisam. The transformation of Mesozoic tectonic regime in NE China is related not only to superposition and transformation of Paleo-Asia ocean tectonic system by west Pacific tectonic system, but the evolution of Mongolia-Okhotsk tectonic system plays an important role in transforming tectonic regim, especially in Mid-Late Jurassic. The evidences of geology and geophysics show that the well-known three faults of Derbugan in Da-Xinganling Mountains, Hegenshan in central part of Inner-Mongolia and Nadanhada in east part of Heilongjiang Province are not deep faults controlling tectonic units probably. The parts under Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins in NE China for the most part are not metamorphosed crystalline basement, but a large marrine sedimentary basin.

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Metallogenic Regularity of Oil Shale in Continental Basin:Case Study in the Meso-Cenozoic Basins of Northeast China
LIU Zhao-jun, MENG Qing-tao, JIA Jian-liang, SUN Ping-chang, LIU Rong, HU Xiao-feng
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1286-1297. 
Abstract ( 770 )   PDF (1414KB) ( 746 )  

As an important replacement or supplement energy for traditional oil & gas, the position of oil shale in global strategy becomes more and more obvious. In order to reveal the characteristics and distribution regularity of oil shale in continental basins better, based on the summary of exploration results of oil shale for many years, the deposit and metallogenic characteristics of typical oil shale bearing basins such as Songliao and Huadian basin in Northeast China have been analyzed, and the metallogenic regularity of oil shale in continental depression and fault basins has been revealed. It is shown that oil shale mainly developed in HST and TST within the third order sequence. Paleoclimate and sedimentary environment play important control action on oil shale formation in large scale depression basin, warm and humid climate greatly improves the lake productivity, which provides abundant materials for oil shale formation. The distribution of oil shale changes regularly by the evolution of the lake, oil shale mainly deposit in semi-deep to deep lake, high salinity causes the salinity stratification of the lake water, which is benefit for organic preservation. Tectonic conditions play a vital control action on oil shale mineralization in small fault basins, which affect the thickness distribution and quality characteristics of oil shale by controlling the accommodation. The accumulation belts of oil shale locate in semi-deep to deep lake close to basin-controlling contemporaneous fault, and oil shale obviously thicken and the oil yield increase near by the side of fault. Meanwhile, the altering wet and dry climate controls the number of layers and the preservation conditions. Comparative analysis indicates that the scale of depression oil shale bearing basin is large, oil shale exists alone, the distribution area is large, and characterized by thin-middle layer and low-middle oil yield. The scale of fault oil shale bearing basin is small, oil shale exists alone or associated with coal, and characterized by thin layer and high oil yield or thick layer and middle oil yield. During the period of HST and TST within third-order sequence, the organic matter abundance and lake productivity are higher, the stratiform and texture algae are relatively prosperous, exogenous input is relatively low, the water salinity is higher, the reducibility is stronger and the environment is alkalinity, which are the favorable periods for oil shale formation. Therefore, the abundant organic matter and favorable lake salinity stratification that are comprehensively controlled by paleostructure, paleoclimate and sedimentary environment are restrictive factors for the organic matter enrichment of oil shale.

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The Tectonic Framework and Evolution of the NE China:from~500 Ma to ~180 Ma
ZHOU Jian-bo, ZENG Wei-shun, CAO Jia-lin, HAN Jie, GUO Xiao-dan
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1298-1316. 
Abstract ( 621 )   PDF (2077KB) ( 1333 )  

The basement rocks in parts of NE China constitute a khondalitic sequence of sillimanite-and garnet-bearing gneisses, hornblende-plagioclase gneiss and various felsic paragneisses. Zircon U-Pb dating of garnet-sillimanite gneiss samples from the Erguna, Xing’an, Jiamusi and Khanka blocks all indicate that high-grade metamorphism occurred at ~500 Ma. Evidence from detrital zircons in Paleozoic sediments from the Songliao block also indicates the former presence of a ~500 Ma component. This uniformity of U-Pb ages across all crustal blocks in NE China establishes a>1 300 km long Late Pan-African khondalite belt with Pan-African syn-collisional granite, which we named here the ‘NE China Pan-African Orogen’.This indicates the blocks of NE China were amalgamated prior to ~500 Ma, contrary to current belief. One scenario is that this amalgamated terrane had a tectonic affinity to the Siberia craton, once forming part of the Late Pan-African (~500 Ma) Sayang-Baikal orogenic belt extensively developed around the southern margin of the Siberia craton. This belt was the result of collision between currently unidentified terranes with the Southeastern Angara-Anabar Province at about 500 Ma, where the rocks were deformed and metamorphosed to granulite facies. It appears likely that at sometime after ~450 Ma, the combined NE China blocks rifted away from Siberia and moved southward to form what is now NE China. The combined block collided with the North China craton along the Solonker-XarMoron-Changchun suture zone at ~230 Ma rather than in the end-Permian as previously thought. Local rifting at the eastern extremity of the developing Central Asian orogenic belt (CAOB) resulted in the splitting away of the Jiamusi/Khanka(/Bureya) blocks. However, this was only transient and sometime between 210 and 180 Ma, and these were re-united with the CAOB by the onset of Pacific plate subduction, which we named here the “Jilin-Heilongjiang high pressure belt” and forming which has dominated the tectonic evolution of the region since that time.

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Tectono-Thermal Events of the Northern Qaidam Margin-Southern Qilian Area, Western China
LIU Yong-jiang, Franz Neubauer, LI Wei-min, Johann Genser, LI Wei
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1317-1329. 
Abstract ( 651 )   PDF (1416KB) ( 714 )  

U-Pb isotopic dating of the detrital zircons from both the Cenozoic sediments in Lulehe section and the modern river sands in northern Qaidam margin show four main peak ages of ~260, ~450, 500-600, 800-900 Ma and two small peak ages of ~1.8 Ga and 2.5-2.6 Ga. Together with the previous reported isotopic dating data in the area, we concluded that the northern Qaidam margin-southern Qilian area had been suffered a relatively strong low temperature regional metamorphism during the Middle-Late Permian. The eclogite and its related rocks were uplifted and denudated to the earth surface after Pliocene. There occurred the Rodinia super continent breaking up in 800-900 Ma, fan-African regional metamorphism in 500-600 Ma and the ~450 Ma metamorphism related to the subduction and collision in the northern Qaidam margin-southern Qilian area. The major tectonothermal events occurred in the Paleozoic in the area, mainly in the 500-600 Ma and 800-900 Ma.It is suggested that the Pre-Cambrian basement of the northern Qaidam margin-southern Qilian area is similar to that of Yangtze plate but different from that of North China plate.

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Extensional Fault-Bend Folding and Its Constrains on the Sedimentation of Beier Sag in Hailar Basin
LIU Zhi-hong, MEI Mei, LIU Hang-Jun, WU Xiang-mei, WAN Chuan-biao, LIN Dong-cheng, GAO Jun-yi
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1330-1337. 
Abstract ( 485 )   PDF (1512KB) ( 785 )  

Hailar basin is a Meso-Cenozoic basin which superimposed on the Inner Mongolia-Greater Hinggan Mountain Paleozoic collision orogenic belt. The basin, trending north-east, is consist of five first-order structural units (three depressions and two uplifts), from west to east are Zhalenuoer depression, Cuogang uplift, Beier Lake depression, Bayanshan uplift and Huhe Lake depression. Beier sag is a second-order structural unit in the south of Beier Lake depression. The control subsidence fault of Beier sag is a listric  normal fault which consists of a convex and two concave fault-bend, and formed extensional duplex in depth. The shear rotation of active axial surface caused by convex fault-bend is the same as the fault plane, the shear rotation of active axial surface caused by concave fault-bend is contrary to the fault plane, and two anticline sandwiching a syncline formed in hanging wall of listric  normal fault. The horizontal extension of the control subsidence fault F1 is 6 850 m during Late Nantun Period in the Early Cretaceous,determined by the rollover width between active axial surface and inactive axial surface. The geometry and kinematics of extensional fault-bend fold in Beier sag reflect the impact of the fault slip rate, the tectonic subsidence rate, deposition rate on deformation characteristics of sedimentary strata and constrains on the sedimentation and petroleum geological conditions in the depression. The internal angular unconformity of the Upper Member of Nantun Formation in Beier sag developed without erosion or hiatus on deformation due to increases in deposition rate relative to subsidence rate, where half-graben compartments change from sediment-underfilled to overfilled conditions.

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Volcanic Cooling Unit and Analysis of Stratigraphic Architecture of Yingcheng Formation in Songliao Basin
CHENG Ri-hui, REN Yan-guang, SHEN Yan-jie, XU Zhong-jie
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1338-1347. 
Abstract ( 465 )   PDF (1273KB) ( 506 )  

The reorganization of volcanic cooling unit is a key to analyze volcanic stratigraphy and litho-facies. The study of the sections of Yingcheng Formation in Songliao basin shows that there are four types of cooling unit including pyroclastic, lava, pyroclastic+lava and lava+pyroclastic in the outcrop of the southeast margin and Xujiaweizi fault depression. The type of pyroclastic is an end unit reflecting the processes of hydro explosion. The type of lava is another end unit reflecting the processes of magma effusion. The type of pyroclastic+lava is a basic unit reflecting the consequent processes of hydro-magma eruption. The type of lava+pyroclastic is a reformed or special unit. Cooling unit itself and its stacking contain meaning of litho-facies. The cooling unit is a genetic stratigraphic unit in volcanic stratigraphy, which is fundamental to learn architecture, forming and preservation of volcanic strata. The recognition of volcanic cooling units and analysis of superimposition give a stratigraphic architecture of the First Member, Yingcheng Formation in Xujiaweizi of Songliao basin.

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The Main Factors of Intermediate and Mafic Volcanic Gas Reservoir-Forming of Yingcheng Formation in Anda Area of Songliao Basin
SHAN Xuan-long, GAO Xuan, XU Han-liang
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1348-1357. 
Abstract ( 495 )   PDF (1292KB) ( 586 )  

Intermediate and mafic volcanic rocks of Songliao basin mainly are developed in Anda subsag,which gas productivity takes about 60% of total productivity in the deep layers of the study area.The source rocks of intermediate and mafic volcanic gas reservoir are dark mudstone and coal developed in Shahezi Formation.Reservoirs are dominated by trachyte,basalt and volcanic breccia of the Third Member of Yingcheng Formation.Regional cap is mudstone of the Second Member of Denglouku Formation,besides these,there are many kinds of lithologic and structural traps,which benefit to reservoir-forming.The characteristics of effective reservoir are analysised by property and permeability data.Then combining comprehensive log interpretation and gas testing results, the distribution of gas reservoir both on longitudinal and horizontal sections is analysised.The main factors of intermediate and mafic volcanic gas reservoir-forming of Yingcheng Formation in Anda subsag are studied. Lithology and lithofacies influence the development of effective reservoir,and trachyte and basalt of effusive facies are mainly effective reservoir type.Intermediate and mafic volcanic breccia of explosive facies have best property and permeability which should be paid special attention. Volcanic cycles control the longitudinal distribution of gas reservoir,that is gas reservoirs mainly locate in the top and upper of each volcanic cycles/stages. Volcanic edifice facies belts control the horizontal distribution of gas reservoirs.The gas reservoirs distribute mainly in cracter-near cracter facies belts.

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Mineral Composition and Origin of Authigenic Quartz Crystals in Black Mud-stone,in well HX,Qingshankou Formation,Upper Cretaceous,Songliao Basin
LIU Li, WANG Li-juan, YANG Yong-zhi, YU Zhi-chao
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1358-1365. 
Abstract ( 565 )   PDF (715KB) ( 605 )  

The mineral composition and diagenesis of shale play important roles in constraining the sealing efficiency as caprock of CO2 sequestration and the fracability in shale gas. X-ray fluorescence spectrum, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy are employed in the determination of mineral composition of mudstone and the identification of submicron-sized authigenic quartz crystals in well HX, Qingshankou Formation, Upper Cretaceous. The type of host rock and weathering effect are in consistent with mudstone in Qingshankou Formation. The mudstone is composed of clay mineral, albite, quartz and less K-feldspar. The clay fraction consists mainly of mixed-layer I/S and minor amounts of chlorite. Brittle mineral (albite, quartz and feldspar) average content is 44.43%, and clay mineral content is 54.26% on average. Submicron-sized authigenic quartz crystals released from S-I relation occur as large amounts of extremely fine-grained micro-sized crystals embedded as discrete, small clusters/nest and locate in micropores in mixed-layer I/S. The caprock consisting of mainly mixed-layer I/S mineral and minor amount of micron-quartz will be conductive to long-term CO2 geological storage. The content of brittle mineral meet the reservoir standard of industrial value shale gas, while the content of clay mineral is quite low.

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U-Pb Dating of Syn-Mineralization Dykes of the Haigou Gold Deposit, Jilin Province and Its Metallogenic Significance
LI Xu-jun, FAN Wen-liang, WANG Jian-yu, FAN Wen-song, LIANG Ben-shing, FAN Zhen-hua, YANG Xiao-ming, REN De-kui
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1366-1377. 
Abstract ( 648 )   PDF (1969KB) ( 894 )  

Two types of zircon, magmatic crystalline and captured fragment, are recognized in a syn-mineralization dyke(kjelsasite porphyry) sample collected from the Haigou gold deposit and used for zircon U-Pb dating. The averaged U-Pb age of the magmatic crystalline zircons of the sample is (132.4±1.5) Ma(n=18,MSWD=0.48,Probability=0.96),indicating the formation age of the dyke. The upper and lower intersection ages of the zircons at U-Pb concordant plot are (2 460±29) Ma and (137±18) Ma respectively,probably representing the ages of the captured zircon fragments and forming age of the dyke. Comprehensive study indicates that gold mineralization in the Haigou gold deposit took place at about 132.4-128 Ma, a transitional period between the orogenic collision and postorogenic extension. It is suggested that the asthenospheric upwelling and related geological and mineralization processes are the main cause for the formation of the Haigou gold deposit. The Dahaigou pyroxene diorite stock at the southeastern corner of the mine is thought to be coeval and cogenetic with the syn-mineralization dykes in the mine and its age gives the upper limit of the ore forming age.

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Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic Tectonic Evolution in the Eastern Heilongjiang Province, NE China: Evidence from Igneous Rock Association and U-Pb Geochronology of Detrital Zircons
XU Wen-liang, WANG Feng, MENG En, GAO Fu-hong, PEI Fu-ping, YU Jie-jiang, TANG Jie
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1378-1389. 
Abstract ( 702 )   PDF (1365KB) ( 1031 )  

It remains a topic of debate that the tectonic evolution between the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range and Jiamusi massifs and the timing of transformation from the Paleo-Asian Ocean to the circum-Pacific tectonic systems in the eastern Heilongjiang Province. In the present study, the geochronology and rock association of the Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic igneous rocks in the study area, combined with geochronological data of detrital zircons, provide strong constraints in this regard. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating results indicate that the Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic magmatism in the eastern Heilongjiang Province can be divided into eight stages, i.e., the Early Ordovician(485 Ma), Late Ordovician(450 Ma), Middle Silurian (425 Ma), Middle Devonian (386 Ma), Early Permian (291 Ma), Middle Permian (268 Ma), Late Triassic (201-228 Ma), and Early Jurassic (184 Ma). The Early Ordovician-Middle Silurian magmatism, occurred in eastern margin of the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range Massif with the obvious south-north-trend, is composed mainly of diorite, tonalite, and monzogranite, which formed in the subduction-collision tectonic setting, implying that the amalgamation between the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range and Jiamusi massifs finished in the Middle Silurian (425 Ma). It is also supported by the geochronological data for detrital zircons from Early Devonian sedimentary rocks in study area. Middle Devonian volcanism is composed mainly of a series of bimodal volcanic rocks in eastern margin of the Jiamusi massif and the A-type rhyolite in the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range massif, suggesting a post-collisional extensional environment. Early Permian calc-alkaline volcanic rocks, occurred in eastern margin of the Jiamusi massif, imply that the subduction of the Paleo-Asian Oceanic plate happened beneath the Jiamusi massif, whereas the coeval bimodal igneous rocks, occurred in the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range massif, suggest an extensional environment similar to back-arc setting. The formation of Middle Permian syn-collisional volcanic rocks in southern-southeastern margin of the Jiamusi massif could be related to the collision between the Jiamusi and Khanka massifs. The Late Triassic bimodal volcanic rocks in the Zhangguangcai Range and the A-type rhyolite in the region to southeast of the Dunmi fault imply an extensional environment related to the final closure of Paleo-Asian Ocean. Additionally, the occurrence of Middle-Late Permian granites in the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range and Jiamusi massifs, combined with the lack of Late Triassic to Early-Middle Jurassic magmatisms in the Jiamusi massif, imply that the breakup of the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range and Jiamusi massifs could happen again along the Mudanjiang fault during Early Triassic. The occurrence of Early-Middle Jurassic calcalkaline volcanic rocks in the Dongning-Wangqing-Hunchun region and coeval bimodal igneous rocks in the Lesser Xing’an-Zhangguangcai Range, combined with the formation of the “Zhangguangcailing Group” and “Heilongjiang Group” tectonic melange, implies that the amalgamation between the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range and Jiamusi massifs could take place again during Early-Middle Jurassic, also marking the beginning of the circum-Pacific tectonic system.

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Origin of Ultramafic Xenoliths in High-Mg Pyroxene-Diorites from Western Shandong Province: Evidence from Oxidation State (fO2) and Platinum Group Elements
WANG Jian, XIE Zhi-peng, XU Wen-liang, Keiko Hattori
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1390-1403. 
Abstract ( 451 )   PDF (1636KB) ( 499 )  

Ultramafic xenoliths are abundant in Late Mesozoic high-Mg pyroxene-diorites at Laiwu, western Shandong Province; they are composed of dominant dunite (>80%) with minor harzburgite and olivine-pyroxenite. We determined the abundance of siderophile elements (PGEs, Cr, Co, and Ni) and chalcophile elements (Cu and S) of representative xenolith samples, and calculated oxidation states based on mineral chemistry. The harzburgite shows evidence of variable metasomatism by a Si-rich melt, and contains high concentrations of Cr, Co, Ni and IPGE with high ratios of IPGE/PPGE in bulk rock composition, most likely representing the residue of mantle after high degree of partial melting. Dunite, composed of chromite and high-Mg olivine, contains high Cr, Co and Ni, but low IPGE with low ratios of IPGE/PPGE in bulk rock composition, suggesting it is likely the cumulate of a mafic melt. Some olivine grains in dunite show variable, locally high Mg (up to Fo=94). We attribute these high values to the interaction of the olivine with abundant chromite in the cumulate, and that the parental melt was likely boninitic. Both harzburgite and dunite indicate high log fO2 values, ranging from FMQ+1.4 to +2.4. The values contrast with fO2 below that of the graphite-CO2 buffer for xenoliths in Early Paleozoic diamondiferous kimberlite pipes in the area. The data indicate a sharp increase in fO2 during Mesozoic time, likely caused by subduction of the Tethyan oceanic plate before collision with the Yangtze continent below the eastern margin of the North China craton.

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Experiment on Impact of Groundwater Quality During Artificial Recharge Process
LIN Xue-yu, ZHANG Wen-jing, HE Hai-yang, SHI Xu-fei, WANG Han-mei, JIAO Xun
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1404-1409. 
Abstract ( 723 )   PDF (1232KB) ( 585 )  

As a result of the water-rock interaction mechanism in artificial recharge process is more complex, the evaluation on influence of groundwater quality during the artificial recharge process is scarce. The authors discuss the trends of solute component and their associated water-rock interaction during the artificial recharge process based on pilot scale experiments conducted in the laboratory. Experiment results showed that:in the groundwater recharge process, the ion composition of groundwater were mainly affected by the mixing, cations exchange adsorption and aquifer mineral phase (calcite, dolomite, potassium feldspar) dissolution. Due to the influence of underground anaerobic environment developing to the aerobic environment in the artificial recharge process, the elements of As, Cr, Fe in porous media has dissolved out. Besides, the As-Fe element variation showed well correlation. Along with the increase of artificial recharge time, the effect range of groundwater quality was increased. And the chemical type of groundwater was changed from the initial Cl-HCO3-Na to Cl-HCO3-Na-Ca gradually during the recharge process.

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Subsurface Reactive Transport Modeling: A New Research Approach for Geo-Resources and Environments
XU Tian-fu, JIN Guang-rong, YUE Gao-fan, LEI Hong-wu, WANG Fu-gang
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1410-1425. 
Abstract ( 672 )   PDF (1914KB) ( 1460 )  

Subsurface reactive transport modeling (RTM) is a new research approach for studying fundamentals of earth sciences, and solving problems of geo-resources and environments with complex physical and chemical processes, such as the safety assessment of waste disposal, groundwater pollution, environmental remediation, CO2 geological sequestration, and solution mining of metal deposits. We first review the history of RTM, the current status of RTM is then summarized;Furthermore, we discuss challenges raised from coupled processes, spatial scales, treatment of fractured rock and heterogeneous media.We use modeling examples of groundwater quality evolution, nitrate biodegradation and CO2 geological sequestration, to demonstrate the RTM applicability and broad application prospects. Finally we explore the future directions of the RTM research.

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Risk Management and Screening of Remediation Technologies for Contaminated Groundwater Site
ZHAO Yong-sheng
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1426-1433. 
Abstract ( 513 )   PDF (409KB) ( 1081 )  

Groundwater pollution control and remediation technologies have been studied abroad, some technologies have been used successfully in field practice. The remediation study of contaminated groundwater in China is highly concerned recently, the national wide groundwater pollution survey has been conducted and the pollution prevention planning is ongoing, and the groundwater remediation comes into the demonstration studying stage. For a contaminated groundwater site, different kind of risk management methods can be used, and many remediation technologies can be chosen. It is very important to develop risk management strategies, and to screen the right remediation technology or the combination of technologies for a specific contaminated site. The authors deal with the risk management and the screening of remediation technologies. The major groundwater remediation methods have been discussed and analyzed through the analysis of existed groundwater pollution risk management strategies, and with the consideration of author’s experiences in groundwater contaminated site study. Finally the screening procedure and methods of groundwater pollution remediation technologies have been proposed for the contaminated sites.

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When Groundwater Meets DNA:Petroleum Hydrocarbon Stress vs Biodegradation
YANG Yue-suo, LEI Yu-de, DU Xin-qiang, HAN Jian-chao, CAO Yu-qing
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1434-1445. 
Abstract ( 518 )   PDF (997KB) ( 650 )  

Groundwater sciences and engineering developed so far has become a comprehensive discipline involving multiple subjects. Control and remediation of contaminated groundwater need technical and knowledge support from inter-disciplinary effort. Bacterium has been a focus for sustainable remediation of organic contaminated sites. A concise review on groundwater contamination and its remediation, interactions between organic contaminant and microorganisms, bioremediation mechanism, and then bacteria was undertaken. As a case study, a microbial study was carried out at a petroleum contaminated groundwater site to have successfully isolated dominant strains for oil degradation from the oil contaminated groundwater samples. The results showed that the Prokaryotic actinomycetes possessed the best degradation rate, followed by other bacteria and fungi. Pairwise combinations showed obvious better degradation than single bacterium, indicating the presence of synergies. Mixed strains expressed poorer degradation, revealing the antagonistic effect. Dynamics degradation experiment demonstrated TPH degradation follows the 1st order kinetics equation, the degradation rate and half-life of petroleum contamination were obtained. For specific compounds, alkane exhibited the similar degradation to TPH; refractory non-hydrocarbon compounds showed lower degradation rate, it was concentrated later since the transformation of alkanes, little change in benzene. The microbial activity experimental results showed that the biomass and dehydrogenase activity correlated with the biodegradation positively. The specific species of the bacteria were determined by physiobiochemical and molecular biological techniques.

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Relationship Between COD and TOC of Typical Wastewaters in Jilin Province and Mechanism and Main Influencing Factors
DONG De-ming, SONG Xing, HUA Xiu-yi, YUAN Mao, LIANG Jian-hai, GUO Zhi-yong, LIANG Da-peng
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1446-1455. 
Abstract ( 425 )   PDF (778KB) ( 691 )  

Chemical oxygen demand(COD) and total organic carbon(TOC) of typical wastewaters in Jilin Province were investigated. The possibilities of establishing linear regression equations were studied through analyzing relationship between COD contents and TOC contents of wastewaters. Based on this, influences of volatility and oxidization properties of organic compounds on relationship between COD contents and TOC contents of the wastewaters were discussed via analyzing organic compounds of some wastewaters. The mechanisms of the relationship of wastewaters were discussed. The results indicated that there were significant linear correlations between COD contents and TOC contents of all the samples of the typical wastewaters(α≤0.050). The range of COD/TOC of all kinds of wastewaters were from 1.711 to 12.280. The relationship was mainly controlled by the composition of the wastewaters. Elemental composition of the typical organic pollutants in the wastewaters played a key role in determining the correlations between COD contents and TOC contents of the wastewaters. The volatility and oxidization properties of the main organic pollutants in the waters also played important but divers roles in these correlations and the ratios of COD to TOC of the wastewater samples.

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Regional Groundwater Contamination Assessment in the North China Plain
ZHANG Zhao-ji, FEI Yu-hong, GUO Chun-yan, QIAN Yong, LI Ya-song
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1456-1461. 
Abstract ( 1097 )   PDF (279KB) ( 714 )  

The North China Plain is one of the important economic zones of China, with a population of 0.13 billion, and its main water source is groundwater. The groundwater has been polluted due to the sewage from industry and town living and the chemical fertilizer and pesticide from agriculture. The authors first analyzed several methods of groundwater contamination assessment and put forth a new method called Single Factor Standard Index Method which is obtained on the basis of Single Factor Index Method. Field investigation was conducted comprehensively. 6 063 groups of groundwater samples were got and 34 factors were tested of each group. According to the Single Factor Standard Index Method, 35.47% samples have been contaminated by human activities, mainly slightly contamination. Deep groundwater is better than shallow groundwater and uncontaminated deep groundwater accounts for 87.14%.  Using the Single Factor Standard Index Method,the indexes can be compared and the contamination degree can be showed directly. The results of using Single Factor Standard Index Method give a basis for groundwater contamination prevention.

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Simulation on the Inflow of Agricultural Non-Point Sources Pollution in Dahuofang Reservoir Catchment of Liao River
TANG Ji, YANG Wei, LI Zhao-yang, BIAN Jian-min, LIU Chang
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1462-1468. 
Abstract ( 390 )   PDF (1270KB) ( 874 )  

This study was to simulate the agricultural non-point source pollution (ANSP) input of Dahuofang reservoir catchment area in Liaoning Province in China based on export coefficient method and SWAT model, and the simulation model was calibrated and verified by the monitoring data of hydrology and water quality from 2006 to 2009. The results of model evaluation showed that the annual load of sediment, total nitrogen and total phosphorus was 82.65×103 t, 1 873.49 t and 81.97 t. Besides, the monthly amount of the load was strongly relevant with runoff. The generation and migration of ANSP was substantially influenced by the rainfall and runoff. The loss of sediment, nitrogen and phosphorus was up to the maximum in July and August each year, accounting for 67.91%, 42.64% and 44.42% of the annual loss amount respectively. The contribution rate of nitrogen and phosphorus pollution caused by the reservoir catchment area as Hun River, Suzi River, She River and small rivers was descending.

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Some Discussion on Geo-Hazards Control and Geo-Environment Sustainable Development
LIU Chuan-zheng, LIU Yan-hui
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1469-1476. 
Abstract ( 439 )   PDF (497KB) ( 885 )  

The situation of geo-hazards is severe in China. The status, trend and problem of geo-hazards prevention are discussed in this paper. On the one hand, in the view of geo-hazards prevention, the basis status of geo-hazards in China is discussed, and the prevention system of geo-hazards in China is studied. Then, with a typical debris flow, occurring in August 8, 2010, in Zhouqu County, Gansu Province, in the southwestern  China, some problem and deficiency of geo-hazards prevention are discussed. On the other hand, in the view of geo-environment development, evaluation frame and system of regional geo-environment sustainable development are constructed, and geo-environment safety management is advanced. Finally, conclusions are as following: we should escape from the habitual thought of the single engineering geological evaluation or the single geo-hazards prevention. The protection of geo-environment and prevention of geo-hazards should be organic integrated to ease geo-hazards.

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Formation Environment and Distribution Characteristics of Main Swamp Turfy Soil in China
NIE Lei, SU Zhan-dong, XU Li-na, YANG Xu-ran
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1477-1484. 
Abstract ( 730 )   PDF (697KB) ( 592 )  

Swamp turfy soil is a special kind of humus soil, and their formation is the result of a variety of geographical factors’ acting. With the comparative study of landform, climate, hydrology and vegetation conditions of the formation of the environment in the main  swamp turfy soil areas, it is found that these areas have common generating environment characteristics: flat terrain, more gully landforms and microtopography, humid climate, sufficient water source, significant ‘diaphragm’ effect, which together form hydrops moist environment. On the one hand it flourishes the swamp vegetation, on the other hand it inhabits the microbial activity to a great extent to decrease the decomposition of the plant residues in this low temperature environment, and finally it makes the turfy soil accumulated, developed and distributed increasingly.

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Development of Key Instruments and Technologies of Deep Exploration Today and Tomorrow
HUANG Da-nian, YU Peng, DI Qing-yun, GUO Zi-qi, LIN Jun, SUN You-hong, XU Xue-chun
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1485-1496. 
Abstract ( 643 )   PDF (1449KB) ( 2055 )  

Deep exploration instrumentation and technologies provide technology supporting for national crust probing plan that discovery deep earth profound, which development level will  decide capability of acquisition and interpretation of data and information from huge continental and marine areas and ultra deep in China. In light of national high technique strategy with aiming at international high-ranked technology, development by the country has to be carried out to meet the request of probing capability and efficiency in geological complexity environment. The development has been designed in several phases and six technique directions, in order to speed up the level of the development. With strengthening cooperation of development units, R&D basis is established with introducing experts,  professional training, importing and learning high-end products and techniques. In this way, it is possible to refined innovation and university manufactory-academic-utilization role and to fast change embarrassing situation of a long term relying on importing all of instruments and technologies. It is hopefully benefit to a huge span pace from the beginning to qualification.

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Fundamental Geophysical Progress on Heilongjiang Plate Tectonics
LIU Cai, YANG Bao-jun, LU Qi, FENG Xuan, LIU Yang, WANG Dian
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1497-1505. 
Abstract ( 541 )   PDF (656KB) ( 813 )  

Heilongjiang plate, located in the northeast Asia, consists of Erguna-Hingan, Songnen-Zhangguangcai Ridge, Jiamusi, Xingkai microplates and Wandashan terrane. Since the comprehensive geophysical works on the Manzhouli-Suifenhe geoscience transect (GGT), magnetotellurics (MT), gravity, magnetic, and seismic probing have been conducted in the Northeast China. The obtained results play a basic role in the geodynamical research and mineral exploration in East Asia. The achievements from these works include: 1)Indicated by the seismic wave velocity, formations of Carboniferous-Permian period (C-P) basement exist at least in the north and the south of the Songliao basin, where should be the future regions for oil and gas exploration;there is a great oil-gas potential in the Binbei district of the Songliao basin with the area of 70 thousands km2. 2)The interpretation of MT data show the subduction of intercontinental sea between the microplates in the Heilongjiang plate with the remnants of oceanic crust; the image can be observed that the ancient Asian Ocean subducted to Heilongjiang plate between the Heilongjiang plate and the south of North China plate. 3)The origin of the gravitational gradient zone along Daxinganling Mountains-Taihang Mountains-Wuling Mountains is presented by the “triple-junction model”. The nearvertical seismic reflection profiles show a “break zone” of Moho interface along nearly northsouth direction in Songliao basin. 4)A 3D migration theory with finite aperture is established in seismic imaging for oil and gas exploration. Based on a 1D time-variant median filtering technique to decrease seismic random noises, 2D median filtering technique is developed. Then the time-frequency peak filtering denoise technique is introduced into seismic exploration; the least square support vector regression filter based on Ricker wavelet kernel is established; a reconstruction technique of Seislet transform to seismic data and an extended higher-order Seislet transform are presented; based on the Trace transform, a Co-Core Trace transform is built up to eliminate seismic surface wave. The pseudo-spectral method is used to simulate the wave propagation which shows the attenuation of qS wave is lager than that of qP wave in the viscoelastic anisotropic media; the seismic events are detected in the background with strong noise by the chaotic oscillator system, and the hyperbolic time-distance relation filter is set up. A migration imaging system for ground penetrating radar (GPR) is used for landmine imaging successfully.

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Research on Marine Controued-Source Electromagnetic Method Airwave
YIN Chang-chun, LIU Yun-he, WENG Ai-hua, JIA Ding-yu, BEN Fang
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1506-1520. 
Abstract ( 531 )   PDF (1985KB) ( 1326 )  

Marine controlled-source electromagnetic method (MCSEM) is an effective technology for pre-drill reservoir appraisal. It is an important auxiliary technology for marine seismic to distinguish between oil-and water-bearing reservoir and consequently reduces the risk of dry wells and exploration cost. However, when surveying in shallow water using a horizontal electrical dipole (HED) as transmitting source, the airwave,propagating at the air-ocean interface,will almost totally mask the signal from the resistive reservoir. Due to the fact that the airwave doesn’t contain any information about the resistive layer, it seriously affects the MCSEM application in shallow water. Therefore, removal of the airwave from MCSEM data to get a good inversion result becomes a research focus. Based on Weidelt’s (2007) airwave theory, we first get the leading term of airwave by derivation of spectral kernels of TE mode. We then,discuss the reason for airwave removal before MCSEM inversion by elaborating the mechanism of its origin and effects. Finally, we divide the current technologies dealing with airwave problem into three categories: 1)Remove airwave based on its characteristics in frequency-domain and time-domain; 2)Airwave-free survey; 3)Direct interpretation. After analyzing  these technologies, we find that all current technologies cannot completely remove the airwave effect in MCSEM data. Each method has its own conditions and limitations for application. A combination of these methods is more helpful and effective.

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The History, the State of the Art and the Future Trend of the Research of Kirchhoff-Type Migration Theory:A Comparison with Optical Diffraction Theory, Some New Results and New Understanding, and Some Problems to Be Solved
SUN Jian-guo
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1521-1552. 
Abstract ( 542 )   PDF (1265KB) ( 1682 )  

I give a brief review of the history, the state of the art, and the future trend of the research of Kirchhoff-type migration theory. Also, I give somewhat detailed discussions on the weighting function, the migration aperture, the pulse stretching effect, the amplitude distortion phenomenon, and the vertical and lateral resolution of Kirchhoff-type migration. Furthermore, I pose some problems to be solved in the research of Kirchhoff migration theory, and present some new results and understanding I obtained in the investigation of Kirchhoff-type migration theory in recent years. To take the close connection between the seismic imaging and the optical imaging fully into account, I use a new way in my discussion, namely that I first present a short overview of Kirchhoff diffraction theory, and then introduce the basic concepts and equations of Kirchhoff-type migration by comparison. In the last several tens of years, significant progresses have been made in the study of Kirchhoff-type migration theory, and a complete theoretical system has been established. Nevertheless, there are still some old and new theoretical problems to be solved, such as the analysis of the output field of the stacking operation after isochrone distribution, and the optimal model space migration aperture, and so on. Considering the object of the theoretical investigation of Kirchhoff-type migration is the weighted diffraction stack, rather than the weighted isochrone distribution, and considering the GPU/CPU co-computing has made the large computation demand of diffraction stack no longer a bottleneck in its practical implementation, in future the way of practical implementation of Kirchhoff-type migration will become consistent with its theoretical description, i.e., the implementation of Kirchhoff-type migration will return from isochrone distribution to diffraction stack. Also, the focal points of the theoretical investigation of Kirchhoff-type migration will relate to the following problems, namely the representation of Green’s function, the migration of the locally coherent events, the generalized diffraction stack, and the optimal migration aperture defined in the model space, and so on.

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Time-Frequency Analysis for Full Waveform Characteristics of Acoustic Logging Based on Fractal Fourier Transform
WANG Zhu-wen, XIANG Min, LIU Jing-hua, WANG Xiao-li, ZHANG Xue-ang, YANG Chuang
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1553-1559. 
Abstract ( 316 )   PDF (932KB) ( 600 )  

As we knew, most of the process techniques for array acoustic logging data still use the analysis methods only in either time domain or frequency domain, but these methods all have obvious limitation for signal analysis. In order to break these limitations, the authors used the fratal Fourier for analysing the array acoustic logging signals and researching the law of signal amplitude variation with the order of the fratal Fourier transform variation in different kinds of reservoirs. As the results, in the dry formation, amplitude shows “1” type distribution;In water formation, amplitude shows “Y” type distribution, two branch of “Y” open narrow and in area of order greater than 0.3, amplitude is larger; In oil formation, amplitude shows “Y” type distribution, two branch of “Y” open wide and in area of order greater than 0.6, amplitude is larger. So the fratal Fourier transform have very good prospect for extracting the reservoir liquid properties information embedded in the array acoustic logging data.

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The Situation and Progress of Magnetic Resonance Sounding for Groundwater Investigations and Underground Applications
LIN Jun, JIANG Chuan-dong, DUAN Qing-ming, WANG Ying-ji, QIN Sheng-wu, LIN Ting-ting
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1560-1570. 
Abstract ( 625 )   PDF (816KB) ( 850 )  

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has emerged as a new geophysical technique allowing direct, noninvasive groundwater investigations from the surface. Comparing to the traditional geophysical methods, the current state-of-the-art NMR method is higher resolution, more efficiency, more information and unique interpretation for hydrogeological investigations. In the last two decades, MRS has been widely used, not only in groundwater exploration, but also in water-disaster forewarning, including dam leakage, tunnel gushing, waterimpacted landslide, and seawater intrusion. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of various aspects of MRS for groundwater exploration in complex geophysical settings. We report the recent researches, includes adaptive signal processing for mitigating electromagnetic noise, 2D/3D MRS methods for low-volume detection, forward modeling and field-data inversion under complex conditions, as well as joint uses of MRS and TEM methods in karst aquifers. By introducing several case studies, we prospect the developing trends of MRS for groundwater assessment.

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Fiber Optic Sensor and Its Applications in Geophysical and Mining Engineering
CUI Hong-liang, CHANG Tian-ying
J4. 2012, 42 (5):  1571-1579. 
Abstract ( 730 )   PDF (1009KB) ( 1725 )  

Compared to traditional sensors such as electric, magnetic, mechanical and gas sensor, optical fiber sensors have many advantages and been applied in many fields. Optical fiber sensor can achieve sensing and signal transmission simultaneously. At present, the most popular two kinds of fiber optic sensors are fiber grating sensor and distributed fiber sensor, the former of which is dominated by fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor introduced and the latter is dominated by distributed temperature sensor (DTS) based on Raman scattering and distributed temperature and strain sensor (DTSS) based on Brillouin scattering. Some application examples of optical fiber sensor in geophysical and mining are illustrated, including fiber seismic detector’s application in underground oil exploration, DTS and fiber grating pressure sensor’s application in oil shale exploration, fiber optic sensor’s application in smart well and fiber gas sensor’s application in subsurface coal mine safety monitoring.Fiber sensor’s current issues (are poor normalization,low yield,et al) and its future development is fiber optic sensors with special structure or in special purpose.

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